To find out what effects the weathering of the limestone building

To do this experiment safely, I will ensure that my group and I will wear goggles during the experiment and do not mess around or run around the class. It will be better to stand up and not sit down and lastly I will make sure that my group do the experiment right so there will be no mistakes.

FAIR TEST:

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The experiment will be done as a fair test, because all chunks will be the same weight. When you have to put small chunks in the tube, you will have to measure the weight and the weight was, 3 grams, so we will get the small chunks out and put it on a scale and measure it then take it out. With the medium chunks the limestone will be bigger and again we will measure 3 grams, the large chunk will be even bigger and we will measure the grams so the substances are fair. For the water, it will be right on top of the cylinder so there is no air in the cylinder and the bucket will have the same amount of water. I will make sure that when the limestone go in the conical flask I will put the lid on straight way or the gas will escape. Also that no one will shake the flask or the pipe, if you shake the flask then the reaction will be quicker.

The acid is even fair, because I will measure the acid at 30cm� and put it in and the powder will be the same weight as the chunks, when one of the experiment is done, we will move on to the next so you have to clean the flask and when cleaning it, it should be cleaned properly or there will be some substances in the flask and it will effect the reaction. There is one more important thing, you should put the chunks or the powder in first, and then put the acid in.

PREDICTION:

I will predict that the larger the chunks of limestone, the lesser the gas is produced, because their will be a big chunk and a bit of acid so it will react slowly and produce less gas, if it is medium chunks then the acid will react a bit faster, produce gas which is more then the large chunks, the small chunks reacts faster with the acid and produce a lot of gas, but when it gets to the powder I think it will produce a lot of gas because it is broken up already. The reason why it takes long to react with the large chunks is because it is big and has a big surface area which mean longer time for the acids to react with the chunks, with the small chunks it will be fats because there is a small surface area and it is small so the acids will react faster with the small chunks, with the medium chunks it is like in the middle it is between the large and the small chunks, which means that it will produce less gas then the large chunks but more then the small chunks. The powder will react faster then the rest because it has lots of small particles so the acid shell react faster, and when you put the acid and the powder in the conical flask make sure to out the lid on straight away or lots of gas will escape. I think it will react fats at the start the go slowly at the end, so the will be a lot of gas at 15 seconds.

METHOD:

Fist we got all the equipments out and that is the Bee Hive, Pipe, Acid, Beaker, Bucket, Conical flask, Water, Measuring Cylinder, Limestone(The large chunks, small, chunks ,the medium chunks and the powder)the lid for the flask. Then you set it out like the diagram on top. Once it is set up fill the bucket with water up to a half. Then fill up the big measuring cylinder with water right to the top and the put your hand on top of it and flip it over and put it in the bucket, now the cylinder should have water in it and no air. Under the cylinder put the bee hive and there should be a side hole in the bee hive and put the pipe in there and the pipe should be on the conical flask with the lid.

Now your ready to start the experiment. You first get the small chunks out measure the small chunks (3 grams) and then you have to measure the acid it should be 30cm�. When you measured both of them you put the chunks in first, some one should get ready to time and to write will the other person pours the acid in and get ready to put the lid in straight away. So then you put the acid in and then the lid and you should of started the time, you will see that the reaction is taking place and the gas is going through the pipe and out the cylinder the air in increasing and the water is decreasing, so when it get to 15 seconds you will right down the measurement of the gas, and then when it gets to 30 seconds you will write down the measurement and then 45 seconds and so on, you don’t stop the time you will carry on.

Now you will do medium chunks and the gas will be different. You put the chunks in and the acid should be 30cm� and then you put the acid in, again now you will measure the gas, from 15 seconds, then 30, then 45, 60 and so on. Then you will do the large chunks this time the gases will be less, so you will measure 15 seconds first then 30 seconds an so on. Now you have to do the powder and this time it will be faster, so when you put the acid in you will have to put the lid as fast as you can and then you will measure it the results will be different and funny. You measure it at 15 seconds then30 then 40 and so on. Now you have finished the first part, you have to repeat it 3 times now do it will be a fair test and also it will be accurate. Then you have to find the average out plot a graph and a table.

HYPOTHESIS:

The larger the chunk the lesser the gas is produced the smaller the chunks the more the gas is produced.

APPARATUS:

1. A Bee Hive = used for at the bottom of the cylinder and the pipe goes through it

2. 2x Measuring cylinders

3. A bucket

4. A conical flask

5. A pipe

6. Acid (2molur)

7. Limestone (small chunks, medium chunks, large chunks and the powder)

8. Water

BACKGROUND KNOWLEGED:

Limestone, common type of sedimentary rock composed principally of calcite (calcium carbonate, CaCO3). When “burned” or calcined (raised to a high temperature), it yields lime. Crystalline metamorphosed limestone is known as marble. Many varieties of limestone are formed by the consolidation of seashells, which are formed by the largely CaCO3 secretions of various marine animals. Chalk is a variety of porous, fine-grained limestone composed mostly of foraminifer shells; coquina is a soft limestone made up of shell fragments. A variety of the rock, known as o�litic limestone, is composed of small spherical concretions, each containing a nucleus of a sand grain or other foreign particle around which deposition has taken place. I did some experiments which were like this one (Secondary Source).

We wrote the results on a graph, we done four tests so we can get an accurate answer, then found the average and we put it on a table and produced a graph. We have found out that the larger the chunks the smaller the gas is and the smaller the chunks the larger the gas is.

Time

(Seconds)

Large chunks

Medium chunks

Small chunks

Powder

15secs

2cm

10cm

16cm

18cm

30sec

10cm

17cm

30cm

38cm

45sec

14cm

20cm

38cm

52cm

60sec

18cm

24cm

46cm

54cm

75sec

20cm

26cm

50cm

54cm

90sec

22cm

28cm

58cm

56cm

105sec

26cm

30cm

60cm

58cm

120sec

28cm

31cm

62cm

58cm

The results were a bit weird because the powder experiment was alright at the start because the gas was increasing but when it got to the end there was no reaction ,it had stopped and that’s why you will see that at the end the numbers are at 50.

I found out some new equipments like the Bee hive and I found out a new experiment to do with Chemistry. I have showed the results more clearly because I have found the average for the results, there would have been a lot of tables and you might get confused so I done a simple and easy table of results. I have done a bar graph because it show the results properly. There was no Pattern in my results but it told me that my prediction was right and that was that the larger the chuck the lesser the gas and the smaller the chunks the more the gas been produced.

I also found out about the experiment that if you put 1 molar then the reaction will be slower compare to the 2 molar. There was pattern by looking at the graph and that is for the first 45 seconds, the gas is very low then when the time increases the gas increases as well, you will see the results going from bottom to top. I found out something about the results, as the seconds go up to 75 seconds you will see that the powder has a lot of gas coming from it and the other chunks have less gas being produced, but when the time gets further from 75seconds , you will see that the powder is producing less gas and the other chunks are producing a lot, it is like a race. I know that my prediction was right because if you look at the table, I said that the powder will react faster then the rest at the start and it happened also that the chunk with the lowest gas will be the large chunks. So I expected my prediction to be right and it was. There might be more patterns or more scientific explanation on this experiment which I could not find out.

My Experiment gave me some useful results because we done a fair test and every thing was done nicely and we done our experiment 4 times so it was accurate. So my results was reliable because we done it 4 times and found the average out. I have a firm conclusion and that is when there is a small chunk, then there will be lots of gas being produced and when there is a large chunk there will be less gas being produced. The experiment could be a bit better if we used 1 molar acid and 2 molar acid to find the difference. Our experiment worked well, we had no mistake because we knew what to do and we done it in a fair test. I can improve the method by adding more chunks and powder.

My method says what to do in the experiment it is clear, so anyone who have not done the experiment they could use my method. There was no odd results, every thing was what I expected and my results were very reliable. I can improve this investigation by finding out information about this project and about this experiment. Like I could of found more about limestone building when it is effected with acid.