The treaty of Versailles

It will cost us billions to rebuild our country and repay our debts. Why should the French people pay more tax than the Germans? Germany started the war. They must be punished and pay for the damage and loss of life that it caused. Let the Germans complain! We will not listen.

SOURCE B is from a school textbook. It is about the views of the British Prime minister on the treatment of Germany after the First World War.

SOURCE B

Lloyd George, the British Prime Minister, did not want to be too hard on Germany. He believed it was wrong blame only the Germans for starting the war. If the treaty was too harsh the German people would hate Britain and France for many years to come.

Q.1 Give two ways SOURCES A and B disagree about how Germany should be treated after the First World War.

In SOURCE C an historian describes some of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.

SOURCE C

The German army was cut to only 100,000 men. They were not allowed to have modern weapons such as tanks, aircraft or submarines. The German navy was only to have six battleships. They were forced to agree to the ‘War Guilt Clause’ that said that Germany had to take all the blame for starting the war.

Q.2 Study SOURCE C and give two facts about the German armed forces after the Treaty of Versailles.

Q.3 Explain why the terms of the Treaty of Versailles were so important to Germany? Give two reasons

THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS LEVEL 1-2

In SOURCE A an historian writes about the American President Woodrow Wilson who came to Europe in 1919.

SOURCE A

President Wilson’s plan for a League of Nations had much support. Many people in Europe were sick of war and death. Wilson seemed to offer a peaceful future where countries would work together instead of fighting each other. Everywhere Wilson went large crowds who cheered him as a hero met him.

Q.1 According to SOURCE A why was President Wilson popular with many people in Europe in 1919? Give two reasons for your answer.

SOURCE B is from a school history book.

SOURCE B

The League was set up to prevent wars breaking out. All countries were to reduce the size of their armies and navies. If a quarrel arose between two countries the League would settle it fairly. If any country attacked another the members of the League would stop trading with the aggressor.

Q.2 Study SOURCE B. How did the League of Nations try to prevent wars? Give two ways.

SOURCE C is from an historian writing in 1996.

SOURCE C

From the start the League was weak because America did not join. Members of the League such as Britain and France did not always give it their full support. The League had no armed forces of its own and this made it difficult to make countries obey its rules.

Q.3 Study SOURCE C and explain why the League of Nations had difficulty in keeping the peace.

GERMAN REARMAMENT ; FOREIGN POLICY LEVEL 1-3

SOURCE A is from a speech made by Hitler in 1933.

SOURCE A

Germany will get rid of her army and navy and destroy all her weapons if all other countries do the same. We do not want our young people to be shot down in battle. They are our only hope for the future.

Q.1 Study SOURCE A. What does Hitler say in his speech that would make people think he does not want a war? Give two reasons.

SOURCE B is from secret instructions by Hitler to his army generals in 1936.

SOURCE B

We must make the German army the strongest in the world. Our young men must be given military training. Our industries must produce more weapons. Our army must be ready to fight within four years. Germany must be ready for war within four years.

Q.2 Why might the evidence in SOURCE B make you think Hitler was not telling the truth in SOURCE A? Give three reasons.

In SOURCE C an historian describes Hitler’s plans for Germany.

SOURCE C

Hitler wanted all Germans to live in Germany. He wanted more land for the German people and he could only do this by taking land from other countries. He wanted Germany to have the most powerful armed forces in Europe. Many people were worried by this and thought that Hitler would have to be stopped by force.

Q.3 Study SOURCE C. Why were Hitler’s plans for Germany likely to cause a war in the 1930s? Give three reasons for your answer.

APPEASEMENT LEVEL 1-4

SOURCE A is part of a public opinion survey by ‘Mass Observation’ about the Munich Agreement in 1938. It is by Bert Hall, a London bus driver.

SOURCE A

Munich was a disgrace. Hitler is nothing but a bully and it’s about time we stood up to him. Today it’s the Czechs, but who will be next. If the Germans aren’t stopped soon they’ll take over the whole of Europe.

Q.1 Study SOURCE A. How can you tell that Bert Hall was unhappy about events at this time? Give two reasons.

SOURCE B is by an historian writing in 1989.

SOURCE B

Chamberlain had to agree to Hitler’s demands. The country was not ready for war. We did not have the weapons needed to fight Germany and Britain’s defences were not yet strong enough. The French did not want war and we could not rely on Russian support.

Q.2 Study SOURCE B. Why did Britain give in to Hitler’s demands at Munich?

Give three reasons.

SOURCE C is from a history textbook.

SOURCE C

The area called the Polish Corridor had been taken from Germany in 1919. Many German people lived there. Hitler was determined make this area part of Germany again. In 1939 he made a secret agreement with Russia to attack Poland and split the country between them. He thought Britain and France would do nothing to stop him.

Q.3 According to SOURCE C why did Hitler order the German army to invade Poland in September1939? Give three reasons.

THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR LEVEL 1-5

In SOURCE A an historian describes the actions of Russia in Eastern Europe after 1945.

SOURCE A

The Russians began to tighten their grip on Eastern Europe. By the end of 1947 every state in this area had a communist government. Stalin allowed only communist party power. Elections were rigged and non-communists were expelled from government. Many people were arrested or executed. The Americans were furious and believed Stalin planned to take over the whole of Europe.

Q.1 Study SOURCE A and explain why America quarreled with Russia after World War II? Give three reasons.

SOURCE B is by President Truman of America speaking in 1946.

SOURCE B

Unless Russia is faced with an iron fist and strong language, another war is in the making. They only understand one thing – the strength of the American army. I think we should stop making deals with them. I’m tired of being polite to the Soviets.

Q.2 Why would an historian find SOURCE B useful evidence of America’s attitude to Russia? Give three reasons.

SOURCE C is a part of a speech by Winston Churchill Britain’s wartime Prime Minister about how the West should deal with Russia.

SOURCE C

From what I have seen of our Russian friends and allies during the war, I am sure that there is nothing they admire more than strength. They have no respect for countries, which show themselves to be weak. We must show them that our armed forces are strong and will be used if necessary.

Q.3 Give two ways SOURCES B and C agree about how to deal with Russia.

ALLIANCES AND THE ARMS RACE LEVEL 1-6

SOURCE A is by an American General writing in 1946.

SOURCE A

Atomic bombs could not destroy the Red Army. The Russian defence to atomic attack is easy to spot. They occupy countries in Europe with infantry and tanks and defy us to drop atomic bombs on Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary etc. We could not attack these countries without killing millions of our own friends.

Q.1 Study SOURCE B. Why does the writer suggest atomic weapons are of limited value? Give three reasons.

SOURCE B is from ‘The Cold War 1945-70’, published 1978.

SOURCE B

The new Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev fiercely criticised West German rearmament and complained loudly about the warlike policies of NATO. In May 1955 he signed the Warsaw Pact which created a military group of Eastern Bloc countries to provide mutual defence for the communist states.

Q.2 Study SOURCE A. Explain why the Warsaw Pact Alliance was set up?

Give two reasons.

SOURCE C is from a school history book. It shows the military strengths of NATO and Warsaw Pact forces in 1965.

SOURCE C

ALLIANCE

COMBAT TROOPS

TANKS

AIRCRAFT

ATOMIC WARHEADS

NATO

1,200,000

10,050

2,850

7,000

WARSAW

PACT

1,260.000

26,500

5,250

3,500

Q.3 Study SOURCE C. Compare the military strength of the two alliances.

THE BERLIN CRISES LEVEL 1-7

SOURCE A is about the Russian attempt to force the Western allies out of Berlin by blockading the city in 1948-49.

SOURCE A

The airlift went on for almost a year. At one time planes were landing at the rate of one every 45 seconds. The allies even used flying boats that landed in the city’s boating lakes. Over 280,000 flights were made to deliver 25 million tons of food and supplies to the city.

Q.1 How can you tell from SOURCE A that the allies were determined to beat the Russian blockade? Give two ways.

SOURCE B is about Berlin after 1949.

SOURCE B

Between 1949 and 1961 over 3 million East Germans escaped to West Germany through West Berlin. This was embarrassing to the East German government. It also damaged the economy, as many of those who left were skilled workers. To stop people leaving the East Germans built a wall of barbed wire and concrete through the center of Berlin.

Q.2 Study SOURCE B only. Give two reasons why the East Germans built the Berlin wall.

SOURCE C is from a speech by President J.F. Kennedy, speaking in Berlin on June 26th, 1963.

SOURCE C

Many people in the world don’t understand what the difference is between the free world and the communist world. Let them come to Berlin. Freedom has many difficulties and democracy is not perfect, but we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in, to prevent them from leaving us.

Q.3 Why is SOURCE C good evidence of American opinion about the situation in Berlin? Give two reasons.

THE HUNGARIAN UPRISING 1956 LEVEL 1-8

In SOURCE A an historian describes the Hungarian Uprising of 1956

SOURCE A

The Hungarian Uprising of 1956 was an attempt to end the communist rule which had been imposed on the country by Stalin. The Hungarian people hated foreign interference and as a Catholic country they wanted freedom to worship. The government of Imre Nagy was very popular because they promised free elections, an end to the occupation of Hungary by Soviet troops and the withdrawal of Hungary from the Warsaw Pact alliance.

Q.1 Study SOURCE A. Explain why there was an uprising in Hungary in 1956?

Give three reasons.

SOURCE B is part of a radio broadcast by the Hungarian Prime Minister Imre Nagy.

SOURCE B

This is Imre Nagy speaking. This morning Soviet forces started an attack on our capital city with the aim of destroying the legal government of Hungary…..Our army is fighting. The government and the people of Hungary are behind them.

Q.2 Why would an historian find SOURCE B useful evidence about the Soviet invasion of Hungary? Give three reasons.

SOURCE C is a part of an American newspaper article dated 8th Dec1956.

SOURCE C

The actions of the Soviets in Hungary are against international law. But the real crime is in the human suffering caused. At least twenty thousand innocent civilians dead, countless homes destroyed and hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing in terror from the brutal forces of communism. Nothing like this has been seen in Europe since Hitler’s defeat.

Q.3 Give three ways the writer of SOURCE C shows his disapproval of Soviet actions in Hungary.

THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS LEVEL 1-9

SOURCE A is about the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1961.

SOURCE A

American spy planes discovered that the Russians were secretly building missile bases on Cuba. If nuclear missiles were launched from these bases every American city would be a target. Ships loaded with atomic warheads left Russia and President Kennedy ordered the American navy to stop them reaching Cuba. He knew this might mean war but he believed the Russians would back down rather than risk a nuclear attack.

Q.1 Study SOURCE A only. Why did America and Russia almost go to war in 1961? Give two reasons.

SOURCE B is from the memoirs of the Russian leader, Khrushchev.

SOURCE B

I wanted to put missile bases on Cuba quickly and secretly – before the Americans found out. This would stop America attacking Cuba. They would also find out what it felt like to have nuclear weapons constantly aimed at them from a short distance away.

Q.2 Why did the Russians put missile bases on Cuba? Give two reasons.

Q.3 Why is SOURCE B useful evidence about the Cuban missile crisis?

Give two reasons.

THE PRAGUE SPRING LEVEL 1-10

SOURCE A is from a speech made by Alexander Dubcek the Czechoslovakian Prime Minister in June 1968.

SOURCE A

I am a communist and I will remain a communist – but we cannot continue with the old ways which now hold back our country. We must allow our people the freedom they need and demand. Czechoslovakia will remain a member of the Warsaw Pact alliance and will work to strengthen the friendship between Czechoslovakia and the other socialist states.

Q.1 Study SOURCE A. Explain how Dubcek tried avoid angering the other Warsaw Pact countries? Give three reasons.

SOURCE B is part of a joint statement by the Warsaw Pact countries, 22nd Aug 1968.

SOURCE B

The governments of the five Warsaw Pact countries have ordered their military units to help the Czechoslovakian working people in their struggle against the enemies of socialism. Our troops will leave as soon as the danger to the independence and security of Czechoslovakia is ended.

Q.2 How reliable is SOURCE B to a historian writing about the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968

SOURCE C is a part of a speech by a Conservative MP in the House of Commons, August 22nd 1968.

SOURCE C

Yesterday the independent state of Czechoslovakia was invaded on all sides by the Warsaw Pact alliance. This is yet another example of brute force being used to crush the freedom that we in the West take for granted. The Soviet Union and her allies will be condemned by the United Nations and hated by the people of Czechoslovakia.

Q.3 Give two ways SOURCES B and C disagree about the actions of the Warsaw Pact countries in Czechoslovakia in 1968.

D�TENTE AND ARMS LIMTATION LEVEL 1-11

SOURCE A is from an article in an American newspaper, August 1971.

SOURCE A

The Soviet Union has the capacity to destroy every major American city 20 times over. We could destroy every Soviet city 50 times over. Neither side can win. What is the point of spending billions of dollars year after year on more and more nuclear bombs which we would never dare to use.

Q.1 Study SOURCE A. Explain why the writer of this article is opposed to nuclear weapons? Give three reasons.

SOURCE B is by a historian writing about d�tente in 1996.

SOURCE B

The USSR was spending a huge amount on weapons at the expense of basic consumer goods. Living standards were poor and Soviet leaders were also worried that their relationship with China was not good while the USA and China were becoming friendlier.

Q.2 Study SOURCE B only. Why did Soviet leaders want to improve relations with the USA? Give three reasons.

SOURCE C gives some of the agreements between the USSR and the USA .

SOURCE C

1963 Test-ban Treaty -no nuclear bomb tests above ground.

1967 Outer Space Treaty – agreement to open and peaceful space exploration.

1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty -to stop the spread of nuclear weapons to other countries.

1971 Seabed Treaty – agreement not to put nuclear missiles on the seabed.

1972 Biological Warfare Treaty – agreement to ban biological weapons.

1972 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty – limit on US and Soviet long-range nuclear missiles .

Q.3 Give three examples from SOURCE C which show that the super-powers were trying to reduce the tensions caused by nuclear weapons.

THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM LEVEL 1-12

SOURCE A is from a school textbook written in 1997.

SOURCE A

The Soviet Union was in serious trouble when Gorbachev came to power in 1985. The economy was in decline and Soviet troops were bogged down in a costly and unpopular war in Afghanistan. Ordinary Soviet citizens faced shortages of food and consumer goods. They often had to spend hours queuing for basic items in the shops.

Q.1 Study SOURCE A only. What problems faced Gorbachev when he became the leader of the Soviet Union in 1985?

SOURCE B is by a historian writing about the end of the communist system in 1989.

SOURCE B

Gorbachev believed the countries of the Soviet Bloc should be free to decide the type of government they wanted. He made it clear that Soviet tanks would no longer support unpopular communist governments. Within a few months the peoples of Poland, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and Romania abandoned communism.

Q.2 Study SOURCE B only. Why did the communist system in Eastern Europe come to an end in 1989.

SOURCE C is from a speech by a Communist Party representative in the Soviet Congress, February 1990.

SOURCE C

Comrade Gorbachev tells the people that perestroika and glasnost has made them free. But everyday experience tells them that criminals, gangsters and black-marketeers are the only winners in Gorbachev’s so- called free society. Ordinary citizens face massive price rises and struggle to keep their families fed. For the first time in living memory the streets of Soviet cities are lined with beggars.