INTRODUCTION Obesity, according to the World Health Organization is a medical condition where excess body fat is accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health. The medical encyclopedia states that obesity is an abnormal accumulation of body fat usually 20% or more over an individual’s ideal body weight. Obesity is associated with increased risk of illness, disability and death. The obesity rate in Malaysia is rising at an alarming rate. According to the Ministry of Health, in just 10 years from 1996 to the year 2006, the obesity rate among Malaysians above the age of 18 has more than tripled. Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia, 2010) In 1996, only 4. 4% of Malaysians are obese. But in 2006, the obesity rate is 14%. According to The World Health Organization (WHO), something has to be done to prevent the rising numbers of obesity. By year 2015, it is believed that 700 million people worldwide would be obese. Obesity is a social issue that has to be tackled before it becomes worse. This is because obesity is the cause of many other serious health related issues. Obesity may lead to cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and many others. (My Malaysia Information, 2010) Obesity is usually caused by unhealthy lifestyles.
Not eating healthily and exercising regularly lead to symptoms of being overweight and eventually to obesity. People need to understand that obesity is something that can be prevented. Besides health, people with obesity are unaware that their medical condition also affects the people around them. Their lifestyles and habits are bad examples to loved ones. The increasing numbers of obesity in Malaysia over these years prove that Malaysians are still not fully equipped with obesity awareness. While there are many other health campaigns out there, people are unaware that obesity can be the root of many health complications.
Therefore, people need to be informed and thus be aware of obesity and its effects on not only their health and lifestyle, but also the people around them as well. With a social campaign, Malaysians will be able to stay away from obesity by understanding the importance of practicing and leading a healthy lifestyle which will benefit them and their loved ones. Once Malaysians are armed with knowledge, they will be socially aware and able to prevent the rising number of obesity cases in Malaysia and instead help instill healthy living to everyone. Adhikarya’s Framework ) Technology & Problems Identification and Information Needs Assessment As the number of obesity cases increases every year, the overall health of Malaysians are threatened. Obesity may cause diseases than lead to eventual death and therefore requires attention as a social issue. Malaysians need to be informed of obesity and learn the importance of healthy living before it is too late. 2) Objectives Formulation To create obesity awareness among target audience and attempt at creating behavioural change among public to lead healthier lifestyles. If these two objectives are met, then it will be a social issue that has been managed. ) Strategy Development and Information Positioning Informational flyers/articles, short concise posters and banners with eye-catching slogans on the dangers of obesity and the benefits of healthy living, and testimonials from obesity patients about their lives. 4) Audience Analysis and Segmentation Adults aged 30-39, from both genders are usually more prone to obesity than people from other age groups. 5) Media Selection The newspaper and flyers or pamphlets print media are chosen channels as the target audience are people who utilise these media more often than other forms of media. ) Message Design, Development, Pretesting and Materials Production Usage of various forms of print media, such as flyers, posters/banners, possibly newspaper articles. Questionnaire hand outs to 80 respondents to gather audience understanding of obesity and healthy living. 7) Management Planning To obtain permission before handing out questionnaires to certain areas and explain purpose of research and its importance. To ensure that fellow group members understand the campaign’s objectives and work towards that. 8) Staff Training
To provide training to all researchers on conducting the questionnaire and fieldwork and brief them on the campaign’s objectives and methods. 9) Field Implementation To carry out social campaign and research, utilising print media to disseminate information, hand out questionnaires and conduct interviews. 10) Process Documentation and Summative Evaluation To collect data, process data, produce conclusion and evaluate effectiveness of social campaign. To determine if the objectives of the social campaign are achieved. LIBRARY RESEARCH REPORT 1.
Abdominal Obesity in Malaysian Adults: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) Abdominal obesity (AO), known as belly fat or clinically as central obesity, is the accumulation of visceral fat resulting in an increase in waist size. There is a strong correlation between central obesity and cardiovascular disease. A group of researchers namely Kee CC, Jamaiyah H, Noor Safiza MN, Geeta A, Khor GL, Suzana S, Jamalludin AR, Rahmah R, Ahmad AZ, Ruzita AT, Wong NF and Ahmad Faudzi Y conducted a survey on April to August 2006 to determine the number of people from a chosen set of group, are diagnosed with AO.
The survey was conducted using a bi-lingual questionnaire and waist circumference (WC) measurements. A total of 32,900 adults aged 18 years and above were measured for WC. The distribution of the characteristics of respondents is shown in Table 1. Results of the study: Based on the NHMS study, it was shown that the risk of AO was higher among people of the age 50-59, Indians, those who were housewives, married or ever married, and those having a lower educational level (Primary level). The study had established the following conclusions: The prevalence of AO in Malaysian adults is higher than in most other Asian countries, with the exception of the South Asian countries. * The prevalence of AO is expected to increase 2. A National Study on the Prevalence of Obesity among 16,127 Malaysians A group of researchers namely Lekhraj Rampal, Sanjay Rampal, Geok Lin Khor, Azhar Md Zain, Shafie Bin Ooyub, Ramlee Bin Rahmat, Sirajoon Noor Ghani and Jayanthi Krishnan conducted a population-based cross-sectional study on the prevalence of obesity in all states of Malaysia in 2004.
The study was conducted using a structured pre-tested questionnaire to interview the study participants. The interviewer obtained verbal consent from the subjects before conducting the interview. Information given was immediately transcribed to the questionnaire. Age was computed from the information on date of birth and date of interview. Table 1 shows the characteristics of the respondents by age, sex and ethnicity. Results of the Study: Table 2 showed that the prevalence of obesity was the highest among people of age 50-59, it is also shown that the prevalence of obesity was scaled towards female.
The prevalence of obesity was also the highest amongst the Malays and Indians. Table 3 showed that the prevalence of obesity was the highest for those who had primary education or no formal education; it is also shown that the prevalence of obesity was scaled towards the female students, with the exception of College or University students. Table 4 showed that smokers tend to have a lower risk of obesity than non smokers. The study had established the following conclusions: * An urgent national strategy for health promotion towards the reduction of overweight and obesity among Malaysian adults has to be done. Innovative approaches should be used to forge effective partnerships between public sector, private agencies and the community. Conclusion The 2 researches can be used as a literature review for our research as they share the similarity of definition, methods, and conclusion that we are targeting for, and they can be used as a reference and guideline in creating our research. KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEW REPORT Dr. Yasmin bt. Sulaiman – Assistant Director of Health Penang, Ministry of Health Penang According to Dr.
Yasmin bt. Sulaiman, the assistant director of health Penang, the state government is very concerned with the arising trend of overweight and obesity problems in the community. In 1996, the National Health and Morbidity Survey I (NHMS I), reported that there are only 15. 9% of Malaysians being overweight and 3. 7% of Malaysians being obese. Ten years later, in 2006, NHMS II’s results showed that the percentage of overweight has doubled to 29%, and, almost a four time increase in percentage for obesity to 14%. Dr.
Yasmin has also stated that the Ministry of Health Penang has run several activities to combat the increasing weight issues among the community. Firstly, they gave out free BMI screening at several participating health clinics and schools. Those who have been categorised as overweight and obese are given free nutritional consultation and weight reduction programmes that are conducted by Nutritionist at every District Health Office. This programme aims to help adolescents and adults who are struggling with their weight.
However, Dr. Yasmin believes that education should start at an early age. She also stated that children who are obese will only gain more weight when they get older rather than losing them. It is mainly because as adults, a person has less time to exercise and to take care of their diet. So the Ministry of Health does more activities at school levels such as screening of nutritional status, weight reduction programme (secondary schools), nutritional consultation, education programmes like talk and exhibition.
Recently in the year 2008, 4 primary schools in Penang have been involved in a pilot Project of Healthy School Canteen which aims to create awareness and increase the knowledge amongst school children regarding healthy diet and weight. The Ministry of Health’s Project of Healthy School Canteen will still be expanded to continue fighting obesity. Other than that, they have also tried to raise awareness about obesity through their healthy lifestyle campaign with education through media especially with Mutiara FM, organizing ublic talks by Nutritionist and Medical Officers and developed educational materials about obesity to the public. Dr. Yasmin states that there is still a lot of work to be done to combat obesity. However, they need a more holistic approach which would need the involvement of every party including other ministries, food ministries, media and etc. They are currently, focused on creating awareness and knowledge among the public about obesity. Although, the Ministry of Health has done quite a bit in combating obesity, they are facing a few problems. According to Dr.
Yasmin, the marketing and the increase of more fast food chains are overlapping their campaign. She also mentioned that our public is becoming too sedentary which is contributing to the obesity problem in our community. Therefore, creating awareness and knowledge among the public is not enough. Dr. Yasmin states that they trying to work on a plan to make the public participate in the “fight” with obesity. Miss Agnes Voon – Fitness Instructor at Fitness First Penang The best way for an obese person to lose weight is by exercising, according to Ms. Agnes Voon, an experienced certified personal trainer at Fitness First Penang.
There are proper routines specifically designed for obese people. No particular technical approaches are compulsory in attempting to lose weight but a lot of discipline is taken into account. Ms. Voon usually suggests 45-60 minutes of cardiology as a start for an obese person is essential. Once results of weight lost start to show, some weight training will be followed through to get into shape. An average time of 2 hours each is considered ideal gym time for best results. And if one follows the routine suggested, 5 months would be all it takes to achieve results.
She also mentioned that motivation is one of the main factors that will affect the outcome and the determination of a person who is struggling to lose weight. She states that many people who are trying to lose weight fail due to lack of determination because losing weight is not an overnight activity. Therefore, on top of the exercise routine, people should always look for new ways to motivate themselves if they do not have a personal trainer. However, she states that exercising alone will not make a person lose weight. Dieting and exercising goes hand in hand.
She explains that if one exercises a lot but still stuffs him or herself with unhealthy food, it is high possibility that their weight will not drop – or worst, increase. She briefly mentioned that fruits and vegetables are some of the ideal food to consume and fatty food should be avoided. She include that 90% of new members Fitness First Penang walked in the gym believing that starving will increase the speed of losing weight. She explains starving will not help anyone lose weight and eating healthily will help increase ones metabolism that will burn off calories.
Through her years of work in the gym, Ms. Voon says that she hasn’t seen many member of the gym who is obese. She states that currently there are only two members in the gym who is categorized as obese according to their BMI. She believes that many people have the mentality that it is impossible to lose weight and they do not realize the danger of being obese. Mr. Tan Yong Jen – Founder of Idealite Care Centre Mr. Tan Yong Jen, Founder of Idealite Care Centre, said that diet and lifestyle of a person affects a person’s weight. He also believes that many people who are obese inherited it from their parents.
However, he added that family members do not only share the same genes, they do somehow share similar diet and lifestyle. There is still no further research done to prove that genetic factors could cause obesity. Despite the number of people who he believes were born obese, he said that they are not doomed to a lifetime of obesity. Mr. Tan adds that a few of her personal clients who are believed to inherit their weight from their parents have managed to lose weight and kept it off. This proves that it is not impossible to shed those unwanted body fat, even if someone is born that way. Mr.
Tan states that he will prepare a different diet plans for different individuals who want to lose weight. They will be advice to consume as much fruits as possible and they will be provided with a timetable according to the person’s lifestyle. According to him, six meals a day is the perfect number of meals a person should have whether if you are obese or not. But when a person’s aim is to lose weight, they should have smaller portion meals spread out through those six meals. He explains that the body will only need part of the “huge” portion meals and the extras will be ultimately turned into fat.
Therefore, having those meals spread out into 6 meals will only give the body the energy that it needed when it needs it. CITAP 1. What is obesity? * World Health Organization (WHO): Excess body fat accumulated to the extend it may have an adverse effect on health. * Medical Encyclopedia: Accumulation of body fat 20% or more on individual’s ideal weight. 2. What causes obesity? * Fast food – Use of fats and trans-fatty acid to cook (French fries, burgers, pastries etc). * Less exercise – When people become more leisure. * Overeating – Consuming food at an abnormal quantity. 3.
What are the risks of obesity? (Scott, 2010) * Type 2 Diabetes – When the body does not respond correctly to insulin. * Heart Disease – Being at least 20% overweight increases risk of heart attack. * Stress Incontinence – Excess weight puts pressure on bladder, making it likely to be incontinent. * Gallstones – Obese women have a higher risk than obese men in developing gallstones. * Other Health Consequences – Other conditions linked to obesity, such as gout. 4. What are the symptoms of obesity? * Exhaustion – Tired easily, low stamina. * Joint problems – Particularly knee problems. High blood pressure * Rapid heartbeat 5. How to reduce or prevent obesity? * Change of appropriate diet – Change eating habits, less fat foods. * Plenty of exercises – Routine exercises. * Education – Educate them about obesity and consequences, preferably educating from young. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, PRACTISE (KAP) PRE-TESTING REPORT 1) Description of the Pretesting a) Sampling Procedure We have chosen our target audience as adults from as young as 19 to as mature as 65. Our scope will be focused on the Georgetown, Penang area throughout the day, and some areas at night.
We have decided on these two aspects because we would like to observe which age groups have more knowledge and are concerned about obesity. b) Introductory Statement Our introductory statement is concise and simple. Respondents are given information on our institution, topic of research and assurance that their privacy will be assured. c) Understanding and Clarity of the Questions There were a few problems that we encountered while conducting the pretesting. One of it was the response categories. There were a few questions that require a “Not sure” option.
The sub questions were also done inaccurately, without properly guiding from the main question. There were also questions that did not state if the respondents are allowed to answer more than one answer although there is more than one possible answer. d) Data Processing The pre-test data enabled us to prepare thorough pre-encoding and pre-design response categories. e) Duration of the Interview The average time spent on an interview during pretesting was about 10 minutes. List of interviewers: 1. Teo Sue Lin 2. Ivan Cheah Joo Siang 3. Dennis Lim Yu Min 4. Nick Chong Jer Win 5. Dwane Chin Wooi Jin )Clarity and Understanding of Questionnaire Introduction * Questions were easy to understand. * The topic is dry, and less appealing to the respondents. * The amount of questions was not too taxing on the respondents. 3)Clarity and Understanding of Questions Original Question 13) Do you know about obesity? Yes (Please proceed to Question 13. 1) No 13. 1) In your opinion, which of the following statements best describe obesity? Looking physically fat Having more body fat than other people Unbalanced height/weight ratio Not falling into the “normal weight” category for Body Mass Index (BMI)
Corrected Question 13) Do you know about obesity? Yes No (Please proceed to Question 14) 13. 1) In your opinion, which of the following statements best describe obesity? Looking physically fat Having more body fat than other people Unbalanced height/weight ratio Not falling into the “normal weight” category for Body Mass Index (BMI) Original Question 18) How can an individual check for obesity? Blood and urine test BMI CT or MR scan Blood pressure Not sure Others (Please specify): ________________________ Corrected Question 18) How can an individual check for obesity? (You may tick more than one answer)
Blood and urine test BMI CT or MR scan Blood pressure Not sure Others (Please specify): _______________________ Original Question 20) How much body weight in your opinion, should an obese person lose? 5 – 10% of their body fat 50% of their body fat All their body fat Corrected Question 20) How much body fat in your opinion, should an obese person lose? 5 – 10% of their body fat 50% of their body fat All their body fat Not sure 4)Exhaustiveness of the Response Categories From the pretesting, we have established that there is no need for additional answers, except options of “Not sure”. ) Format and Sequence of Questions The order, sequence and layout of our questionnaire is from the simple to the difficult questions, thus making the answering process for the respondents easier. KAP SURVEY REPORT 1) Sampling Procedure Eighty questionnaires were prepared, divided into four different locations, the first; at KOMTAR during lunch time, the second; at Youth Park in the morning, the third; at various McDonald’s locations at night – McDonalds Green Lane, McDonalds Air Itam, and McDonalds Sunshine Bayan Baru, and the fourth; at Gurney Plaza during the day.
The research conducted targets at gathering data of views of different groups of people on obesity as a social issue. It is also conducted to instill positive behaviours on the need of being knowledgeable on obesity and preventing it. The campaign is also conducted to encourage constructive practices of healthy living and obesity prevention. We categorized our sample as working adults for the KOMTAR location, people who exercise for Youth Park, fast food patrons for McDonalds and youths for Gurney Plaza. Our categorization is conducted in his way as to obtain different perspectives from people of different walks of lives. Our questionnaire was distributed at these locations in Penang, without regard to ethnicity. 2) Fieldwork The researchers began distributing 20 questionnaires on the 9th of March 2010 at Komtar during lunch hour, followed by another 20 questionnaires on the same day but at various McDonald’s outlets including Green Lane, Air Itam and Sunshine Bayan Baru at night. The following 20 were distributed the morning after at Youth Park while the final 20 were distributed on that same day, 10th of March 2010 at Gurney Plaza during the day.
Everything went smoothly throughout the fieldwork, without problems of obtaining permission to conduct the survey. The researchers were split into small groups for each location, to ensure efficiency and productivity of the distribution and collection of the questionnaires. In the end, we managed to retrieve all 80 answered questionnaires. DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS 1. Gender The pie chart for gender shows that out of 80 respondents, 61% of the respondents are males while the remaining 39% respondents are females. 2. Age
The pie chart for age shows that out of 80 respondents, a majority of 49% respondents are the age of 20-29, 20% are the age of 50-59, and 11% are the age of 30-39 and lastly 10% for both 10-19 and 40-49. 3. Education Level The education level chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 33% respondents are still in diploma level, 28% respondents are still secondary school level (SPM), followed by 23% respondents in degree level, and then 10% respondents in upper secondary level (STPM), followed by 5% respondents of other education level, and finally the least amount of 1% respondents come from middle school (PMR). . Family Size The pie chart for family size shows that out of 80 respondents, 47% respondents have a family size of 0-3, 40% respondents with a family size of 4-6, and 13% with a family size of 7-9. 5. Ethnicity The pie chart for ethnicity shows that out of 80 respondents, a majority of 79% respondents are Chinese, 12% respondents are Malays, 5% Indian respondents and 4% from other ethnicity. 6. Marital Status The pie chart for marital status shows that out of 80 respondents, a majority of 53. 66% respondents are single, 26. 33% respondents are married, and 1% respondents are widowed. . Number of Dependents The pie chart for number of dependents shows that out of 80 respondents, a majority of 89% respondents have 0-3 dependents, 10% respondents have 4-6 dependents, and only 1% respondents have 7-9 dependents. 8. Occupation The pie chart for occupation shows that out of 80 respondents, 37% respondents are students, coming close to students are 33% respondents who selected white collar workers, 18% respondents are of blue collar workers, and 12% respondents are unemployed. 9. Monthly Income The chart for monthly income shows that out of 80 respondents. 51. 2% respondents have a monthly income of RM999 and below, 13. 16% respondents have a monthly income of RM1000-1999, and 18. 42% respondents have a monthly income of RM2000-2999, followed by 7. 89% respondents with a monthly income of RM3000-3999, and lastly 9. 21% respondents have a monthly income of RM4000 and above. 10. Are you concerned about your weight? When asked if the respondents are concerned about their weight, the pie chart shows that 67% respondents are concerned about their weight and 33% aren’t. 11. What is your current weight? When asked about the respondents’ current weight. 2. 22% respondents are weighed above 81kg, 22. 22% respondents are weighed 71-80kg, coming close are 20. 63% respondents who weighed 61-70kg, a majority of 31. 75% respondents are weighed 61-60kg and 3. 17% respondents with the weight of 41-50kg. No respondents are weighed below 40kg. 12. What is your height? When asked about the respondents’ height, 47. 44% respondents are 161-170cm tall, preceded 28. 21% respondents who are 171-180cm tall, and followed by 19. 23% respondents with the height of below 160cm, 5. 13% of respondents who are 181-190cm tall. No respondents are above 191cm tall. 3. Do you know about obesity? Based on the pie chart, 92% of the 80 respondents know about obesity and 8% respondents don’t know about obesity. 13. 1 In your opinion, which of the following statements best describe obesity? The respondents are asked to select any amount of answers tht best describe obesity. 50. 65% respondents think obesity means not falling into the “normal weight” category for Body Mass Index (BMI), no respondents think unbalanced height/weight ratio best describe obesity, 20. 78% respondents selected having more body fat than other people, and 28. 7% respondents think by looking physically fat best describe obesity. 14. Have you heard bout Body Mass Index (BMI) The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 81% respondents heard about BMI while 19% respondents have not heard about BMI. 14. 1 If yes, what is the classification for a normal BMI? When asked about the classification for normal BMI, 85. 42% respondents are not sure about it, 8. 33% respondents think 5. 5-10. 5 is the classification for a normal BMI, and 6. 25% respondents think is 18. 5-24. 9. 15. What is the cause of obesity?
The 80 respondents are allowed to choose multiple answers for the cause of obesity. The chart shows that 68 respondents think overeating is the cause of obesity, 59 respondents selected lack of exercise, coming close to exercise are 53 respondens who selected diet high in fat and sugar, 33 respondents chose unhealthy lifestyle like smoking and drinking, a close number of 31 respondents chose it is genetic/hereditary, 12 respondents think it is weight gain from childbirth, a close 11 respondents think it is other causes. No respondents think the cause of obesity is diabetes. 16. What diseases/complications can obesity cause?
When asked about what disease/complications that obesity can cause, respondents are allowed to select more than one answer. The chart shows that 55 respondents think obestiy can cause cardiovascular disease, 61 respondents think it can cause diabetes, 18 respondents selected hormonal instability, 16 respondents selected cancer, 22 respondents chose pregnancy complication, no respondents think obesity can cause high blood pressure, 67 respondents think obesity can cause high cholestrol level, 20 thinks it can cause death, and 68 respondents think it can cause other types of disease/complications. 7. What are the symptoms of obesity? The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 55% respondents think obesity has external symptoms such as rounded face, breathing difficulties, and exhaustion. 44% respondents think obesity has internal symptoms such as weak muscles, diabetes, and high blood pressure. 1% respondents think there are other symptoms of obesity. 18. How can an individual check for obesity? The 80 respondents are allowed to select more than one answer on how can an individual check for obesity.
The chart shows that a majority of 60 respondents selected BMI, 22 respondents think there are other methods that are not among the options, 17 respondents selected blood and urine test, coming close is 11 respondents who are not sure about it, 2 respondents chose CT or MRI scan and no respondents selected blood pressure. 19. In your opinion, what treatment can an obese individual take? The 80 respondents are allowed to select more than one opinion on what treatement can an obese individual take.
The chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 74 respondents selected dieting and physical activities, 19 respondents selected behavioural change, 10 respondents selected medicine induced treatments, 10 respondents selected surgery and 1 respondent think there are other treatments not among the options. 20. How much weight in your opinion should an obese person lose? When asked about how much weight should an obese person lose. 38. 46% respondents are not sure about the answer, 38. 46% respondents think it is 50% of their body fat, 21. 79% respondents think it is 5-10% of their body fat and 1. 8% respondents selected all their body fat. . 21. Why should people watch their body weight? The 80 respondents are allowed to select more than one opinion on why should people watch their body weight. 61 respondents selected lower risk of diseases, 32 respondents selected increase self-esteem and confidence, 16 respondents selected lower stress and tension levels, 27 respondents selected improved blood pressure, 34 respondents selected healthy cholesterol level, and no respondent selected others. 22. Do you have any exercise tips for an obese individual?
The 80 respondents are allowed to select more than one opinion on exercise tips for an obese individual. 58 respondents suggested routine exercise, 11 respondents selected usage of proper exercise equipment, 22 respondents think it must be an advised routine from a professional and 1 respondent thinks there are tips other than the tips given in the option. 23. What dietary tips would you suggest to an obese person? The 80 respondents are allowed to select more than one opinion on what dietary tips they would suggest to an obese person. 38 respondents selected lower intake of food high in sugar and fat, 51 respondents selected balanced iet, 16 respondents selected regular mels everyday, 29 respondents selected avoid junk food, 24 respondents selected obtain advice from a dietary professional, and no respondent selected others. 24. What behavioral changes required for weight control? The 80 respondents are allowed to select more than one opinion on what behaviourl chnges required for weight control. 30 respondents selected record diet and exercise routines in a diary, 20 respondents selected identifying obesity dngers and risks, 14 respondents selected rewards for every effort and success, 39 respondents selected setting realistic goals, 1 respondent selected others. 25.
I need to eat healthily only if I am obese. The table shows that out of 80 respondents, 46. 84% respondents strongly disagree with the statement, 36. 71% respondents disagree with the statement, 7. 59% respondents are neutral with the statement, 6. 33% respondents agree with the statement and 2. 54% respondents strongly agree with the statement. 26. If I am not obese, I do not require exercise. The table shows that out of 80 respondents, 48. 10% respondents strongly disagree with the statement, 41. 77% respondents disagree with the statement, 1. 27% respondents are neutral with the statement, 7. 59% respondents agree with the statement and 1. 7% respondents strongly agree with the statement. 27. People who are not obese will also suffer from diseases that obese people do. The table shows that out of 80 respondents, 3. 80% respondents strongly disagree with the statement, 10. 13% respondents disagree with the statement, 20. 25% respondents are neutral with the statement, 48. 10% respondents agree with the statement and 17. 72% respondents strongly agree with the statement. 28. I do not need to know much about obesity because it is not as dangerous as smoking, taking drugs and other diseases. The table shows that out of 80 respondents, 30. 8% respondents strongly disagree with the statement, 46. 84% respondents disagree with the statement, 16. 46% respondents are neutral with the statement, 5. 06% respondents agree with the statement and 1. 27% respondents strongly agree with the statement. 29. If I am obese, it is because I am born this way. The table shows that out of 80 respondents, 26. 58% respondents strongly disagree with the statement, 43. 04% respondents disagree with the statement, 24. 05% respondents are neutral with the statement, 3. 80% respondents agree with the statement and 2. 54% respondents strongly agree with the statement. 0. I do not have to worry about obesity because it can be cured. The table shows that out of 80 respondents, 19% respondents strongly disagree with the statement, 51% respondents disagree with the statement, 15% respondents are neutral with the statement, 11% respondents agree with the statement and 4% respondents strongly agree with the statement. 31. Do you regularly check the status of your Body Mass Index (BMI)? The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 89. 87% respondents do not regularly check the status of their BMI and 10. 13% respondents did. 31. 1 If yes, how do you calculate your BMI?
The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 72. 22% respondents are not sure on how to calculate BMI, 11. 11% respondents think it is Weight (kg) x [Height (m) x Weight (kg)], 11. 11% respondents think it is Weight (kg) x [Height (m) x Height (m)], 5. 56% respondents think it is Height (m) x [Weight (kg) x Weight (kg)]. 32. a. Do you practise these activities that may lead to obesity? –Lack exercise and physical activities. The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 55% respondents lack exercise and physical activities while 45% respondents do not. 32. b. Do you practise these activities that may lead to obesity? High calorie diet The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 42% respondents practise high calorie diet while 58% do not. 32. c. Do you practise these activities that may lead to obesity? –High sugar and fat diet The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 46% respondents practise high sugar and fat diet while 54% do not. 32. d. Do you practise these activities that may lead to obesity? –Alcohol consumption The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 34% respondents consume alcohol while 66% do not. 33. a. Do you experience and observe the following changes to your physical self? External/Physical Symptoms (Rounded face, bad breath, stress and low self-confidence) The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 46% respondents are experiencing eternal/physical symptoms while 54% do not. 33. b. Do you experience and observe the following changes to your physical self? –Internal Symptoms (Weak muscles, diabetes and hypertension) The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 27% respondents are experiencing internal symptoms while 73% do not. 34. Do you practise a healthy lifestyle? The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 36% respondents practise a healthy lifestyle while 64% respondents do not. 4. 1 If yes, what do you practise to ensure your overall health? The 36% respondents are allowed to select more than one options on what they practise to ensure their overall health. 16 respondents selected change of diet, 28 respondents selected additional physical activities or exercise, 3 respondents selected professional assistance by a dietician, nutritionist and fitness instructor, 28 respondents selected lower diet of sugar and fat, 29 respondents selected balanced meals and diet, 1 respondent selected counting calories, 10 respondents selected consumption of health supplements and 1 respondent selected others. 5. Do you have regulr health/body check-ups? The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 32% respondents have regular health/body check-ups while 68% respondents doesn’t. 35. 1 If yes, what which of these medical examinations do you undergo to detect obesity? The respondents are allowed to select more than one options on what kind of medical examinations do they undergo to detect obesity. 55. 54% respondents selected blood and urine test, 2. 78% respondents selected CT or MRI scan, No respondent selected surgery, 41. 67% respondents selected blood pressure test, and no respondent selected others. 36.
Do you know anybody who has obesity? The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 59% respondents know people who has obesity while 41% respondents doesn’t. 36. 1 If yes, what treatments do they undergo for obesity? The respondents are allowed to select more than one options on what treatments do those obese individual they know undergo for obesity. 28. 38% respondents selected they do not undergo any treatment, 27. 03% respondents selected additional diet, 25. 68% respondents selected physical activities, 4. 05% respondents selected behavioural therapy, 5. 41% respondents selected medication treatment, 1. 5% respondents selected cosmetic surgery, 4. 05% respondents selected health supplements and 4. 05% respondents selected other treatments apart from the options. 37. Which of these tips have you followed to prevent obesity? The 80 respondents are allowed to select more than one options on the tips they followed to prevent obesity. 20. 81% respondents selected diet low in sugar and fat, 30. 20% respondents selected balanced diet, 19. 46% respondents selected regular meals everyday, 15. 44% respondents selected no junk food consumption, 6. 71% respondents selected diet planning with a dietician, 7. 8% respondents selected cut down or stop consumption of alcohol. 38. Which of these following behviour changes do you practise to prevent obesity? The chart shows that out of 80 respondents. 34. 38% respondents selected record diet/food intake and exercise routines. No respondent selected awareness of obesity risks, 12. 50% respondents selected self-reward for weight loss, 39. 06% respondents selected setting realistic goal at losing weight, and 14. 06% respondents selected socialize within a similar social group to motivate each other. 39. Do you read newspapers?
The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 85% respondents read newspaper while 15% respondents do not. 40. How often do you read the newspaper? The respondents are asked about how often do they read the newspaper. 77% respondents read newspaper everyday, 7% respondents read newspaper five times a week, 6% respondents read newspaper four days a week, 4% respondents read newspaper two days a week and 6% respondents selected others. 41. Basedon a scale of 1 (dislike) to 5 (like), rate the following newspaper to your preference. The 80 respondents are asked to rate the following newspapers to their preference.
Newspapers| 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| New Straits Time| 35. 82%| 10. 45%| 38. 81%| 8. 96%| 5. 97%| The Star| 10. 45%| 5. 97%| 25. 37%| 17. 91%| 40. 30%| Utusan Melayu| 69. 70%| 13. 64%| 10. 61%| 3. 03%| 3. 03%| Berita Harian| 64. 62%| 16. 92%| 12. 31%| 0%| 6. 15%| Guang Ming Daily| 54. 55%| 7. 58%| 13. 64%| 13. 64%| 10. 61%| Kwong Wah Yit Poh| 53. 03%| 9. 09%| 10. 61%| 15. 15%| 12. 12%| 42. Have you ever read an obesity article in a newspaper? The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 59% respondents have read an obesity article in a newspaper while 41% respondents did not. 42. If yes, do you think the obesity article was information enough? The respondents are asked if the obesity article was information enough. 80% respondents think it is informational enough while 20% respondents think it is not. 43. Do you watch television? The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 86% respondents watch television while 14% respondents do not. 44. How many hours a day do you spend on watching television? The respondents are asked about how many hours a day do they spend on watching television. 20. 29% respondents watch less than 1 hour, 62. 32% respondents watch 1-3 hours, 13. 4% respondents watch 4-6 hours, and 4. 35% respondents watch more than 7 hours. 45. Based on a scale of 1 (dislike) to 5 (like), rate the following television channels to your preference. The 80 respondents were asked to rate the following television channels to their preference. TV Channels| 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| RTM1| 71. 64%| 14. 93%| 8. 96%| 2. 99%| 1. 49%| RTM2| 56. 72%| 22. 39%| 10. 45%| 7. 46%| 2. 99%| TV3| 34. 33%| 13. 43%| 29. 85%| 11. 94%| 10. 45%| NTV7| 22. 39%| 13. 43%| 28. 36%| 25. 37%| 10. 48%| 8TV| 29. 41%| 10. 29%| 22. 06%| 27. 94%| 10. 29%| TV9| 43. 94%| 21. 21%| 19. 70%| 10. 61%| 4. 5%| ASTRO| 17. 65%| 0%| 11. 76%| 17. 65%| 52. 94%| 46. Have you ever read watched an obesity program or a Public Service Announcement on television? The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 52% respondents have watched an obesity program or a PSA on television while 48% respondents did not. 46. 1 If yes, do you think that the obesity information provided is sufficient? The respondents are asked if the obesity information provided is sufficient. 64% respondents think that the information provided is sufficient while 36% respondents think it is not. 47. Do you listen to the radio?
The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 73% respondents listen to the radio while 27% respondents do not. 48. How many hours in a day do you listen to the radio? The respondents are asked about how many hours in a day do they listen to the radio. 47. 37% respondents listen less than 1 hour, 40. 35% respondents listen 1-3 hours, 7. 02% respondents listen 4-6 hours, and 5. 26% respondents listen more than 7 hours. 49. Based on a scale of 1 to 5, rate the following radio stations to your preference. The 80 respondents are asked to rate the following radio stations to their preference. Radio Stations| 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| Hitz FM| 22. 64%| 5. 6%| 30. 19%| 26. 42%| 15. 09%| Fly FM| 30. 77%| 7. 69%| 19. 23%| 19. 23%| 23. 08%| ERA FM| 56. 86%| 21. 57%| 13. 73%| 0%| 7. 84%| MY FM| 39. 62%| 11. 32%| 28. 30%| 15. 09%| 5. 66%| Hot FM| 39. 89%| 16. 67%| 25. 93%| 5. 56%| 12. 96%| 50. Have you ever heard of any broadcast on obesity? The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 100% respondents have not heard of any broadcasts on obesity. 51. Do you know how to use a computer? The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 100% respondents know how to use a computer. 52. How many hours a day do use a computer? The respondents are asked about how many hours a day do they use a computer. 0. 64% respondents use less than 1 hour, 22. 64% respondents use for 1-3 hours, 38. 67% respondents use for 4-6 hours, and 28% respondents use for more than 7 hours. 53. Based on a scale of 1 to 5, rate the following search engines to your preference. The 80 respondents are asked to rate the following search engines to their preference. Search Engines| 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| Google| 5. 47%| 0%| 2. 74%| 28. 77%| 63. 01%| Yahoo| 19. 72%| 2. 82%| 22. 54%| 25. 35%| 29. 58%| MSN| 26. 39%| 13. 89%| 20. 83%| 9. 72%| 29. 17%| 54. Have you ever used the Internet to serch on information about obesity?
The pie chart shows that out of 80 respondents, 38% used the Internet to search on information about obesity while 62% respondents did not. 54. 1 If yes, do you think the information provided on the Internet is sufficient? The respondents are asked if the information provided on the Internet is sufficient. 84% respondents think that the information provided is sufficient while 16% respondents think it is not. CONCLUSION In conclusion, the “No to Obesity Campaign” was targeted at people mostly aged between 20 to 29. The campaign focuses on both male and female respondents, with slightly more male respondents.
Based on the knowledge questions from the questionnaire, our respondents have heard of obesity but are unsure of its classifications and how it occurs. Even though they know that such a social issue exists, they are less concerned and bothered by it, finding obesity not a significant social issue. It is therefore important for us to educate our public and equip them with the knowledge of understanding obesity. From the attitude questions, we have established that the public sees obesity as just a minor issue, and feel that other social ills are more capable of ruining the people.
They believe that obesity is an issue that can be easily tackled, even without the need for professionals of government bodies to step in. The practise questions reveal that our respondents are still not practising healthy lifestyles, despite their knowledge of obesity becoming an ever worrying issue day by day. These attitudes need to be changed through the campaign so that they are able to live healthily. Based on the media behavoiur section, our researchers have identified that the newspaper is the best medium for our campaign. It is the most populat hannel among our respondents and they find newspapers informative and factual. We will be able to make use of the newspaper to help inform, instill and cultivate behaviours working towards no to obesity. IDENTIFIED PROBLEMS AMONG RESPONDENTS| FORMULATED EXTENSION CAMPAIGN OBJECTIVES (based on KAP survey result)| 1. Inadequate knowledge on the classification of Body Mass Index (BMI)| To educate the public on the classification of BMI and to increase the percentage of the correct classification normal BMI from 6. 25% to 20%. | 2. Inadequate knowledge on the causes of obesity. To educate the public on the causes of obesity and a) to reduce the number of respondents choosing ‘genetic/ hereditary’ (31) and ‘unhealthy lifestyle’ (33) to 0 as well as b) to increase number of respondents choosing ‘diabetes’ (0) to 35. | 3. Inadequate knowledge on the effects of obesity. | To educate the public on the effects of obesity and to increase number of respondent picking diabetes from 0 to 40. | 4. Inadequate knowledge on how much weight an obese person should lose. | To educate the public on the healthy percentage of body fat a person should lose and to increase the percentage of ‘5-10% of the body fat’ from 21. 9% to 32%. | 5. Inadequate knowledge on the calculation of BMI. | To increase the knowledge of the public on the BMI calculation formula from 11. 11% to 25%. | 6. Lack of exercise and physical activities. | To encourage the public to exercise and to participate in physical activities and to increase the percentage from 45% to 60%| 7. Lack of a healthy diet, with high consumption in fat, calorie and sugar. | To educate the public about the dangers of high sugar, fat and calorie diet and to reduce the percentage from 46% to 30%. | 8. Lack of regular health and body check-ups. To persuade the public to have regular health and body check-ups and increase the percentage from 32% to 45%. | 9. Ignorance towards obesity is common among obese people. | To educate people who are obese about the danger of their weight and to reduce the percentage of ‘people who do not undergo any treatment’ from 28. 38% to 10%. | 10. Despite concern of weight, many do not practise healthy lifestyle. | To encourage the public to practice a healthy lifestyle and to increase the percentage from 36% to 50%. | APPENDIX 1. KII Questions Dr. Yasmin bt.
Sulaiman, Assistant Director of Health Penang, Ministry of Health Penang 1. Is the government concerned about the obesity rate in Penang? 2. What plans does the state government have to combat obesity? 3. Do you think we are doing enough to fight obesity right now? 4. Should we start educating students in schools about obesity? 5. What is the Ministry of Health of Malaysia (MOH) doing to combat obesity? Miss Agnes Voon, Fitness Instructor at Fitness First Penang 1. How do you help people who are obese stay motivated at exercising? 2. What forms of suitable exercise can you suggest to obese people? . What are your philosophies towards prevention and recovery from obesity? 4. What advise can you give to obese people about keeping fit? 5. Doe starving s help speed up weight lost? Explain. 6. How many people who are obese have you trained? Mr. Tan Yong Jen, Founder of Idealite Care Center 1. What is obesity? 2. What are the causes of obesity? Explain. 3. How is obesity related to modern eating habits? 4. How is obesity related to our Malaysian demographics? 5. In your opinion, how and when should Malaysians be educated on obesity? 6. Should we implement nutrition lessons in schools? 7.
What can parents/guardians do to prevent obesity among children? 8. What advice would you have for an obese person? 9. For Malaysians, high sugar content in our regular diet is common. Do you think high sugar intake among Malaysians is the main cause of obesity? REFERENCE & BIBLIOGRAPHY N. A. (2010). Obesity. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia: http://www. moh. gov. my N. A. (2010). Effects of Obesity (Kesan dan Risiko Akibat Obesity). Retrieved March 12, 2010, from My Malaysia Information: http://mymalaysiainfo. com/maklumat/health/obesiti/akibat-berat-berlebihan/index. htm
Kee CC et al. Abdominal Obesity in Malaysian Adults: National Health and Morbidity Survey III. Retrieved January 15, 2010, from http://www. nutriweb. org. my/publications/mjn0014_2/mjn14n2_art1. pdf Lekhraj Rampal et al. A National Study on the Prevalence of Obesity among 16,127 Malaysians. Retrieved January 15, 2010, from http://apjcn. nhri. org. tw/server/APJCN/Volume16/vol16. 3/Finished/(561-566)Rampal. pdf N. A. (2005-2010). World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from World Health Organization: http://www. wpro. who. int/health_topics/obesity/