How much opposition was there in Fascist Italy?

When Mussolini was becoming a Prime minister of Italy and dictator he had a minimum amount of opposition. His oppositions were weak and unorganized. The opposition to Mussolini’s regime showed itself in many different sides, but they weren’t effective oppositions. Oppositions were not so much effective because society was supporting Mussolini. As a result Mussolini’s oppositions end up having minimal effect.

First example of opposition to Fascists was Matteotti he was a Socialist leader. Matteotti made a speech in Chamber Deputy, which was about Fascist, how they were using violence and canceling the election result. As a result he was killed at next night by hand of Fascists with Mussolini’s knowledge. This shows how Mussolini was getting rid of his opposition (however, action which he took to get rid of his oppositions sometimes his position was on the edge of knife he could even lose it). At the time Matteotti knew that he would be killed and he even said that to his colleagues. Even his colleague Amendola died as a result of being beaten by Fascist squad. So we see that one of the main opposition has failed to oppose Mussolini for longer time. Also there were individual oppositions such as The Rosselli Brothers. These two were major oppositions for Mussolini; they were horrified by Fascist violence. One of the brothers Carlo was more radical politically; he wanted to oppose Fascism and participated to several of anti-Fascist organizations. These organizations were making movements such as spreading anti-Fascist propagandas and helping his colleagues escape to exile. Then in Paris he helped to set up the radical anti-Fascist group Justice and Liberty. This publicized conditions in Italy, smuggled propaganda leaflets into Italy, and helped secret activity there. When Mussolini sent his troops to Spanish Civil war in 1936 the Rosselli publicized the humiliation and helped provoke Mussolini’s revenge. They broadcasted to Italy about the struggle. They say how they inflict the defeat on Mussolini’s troops at Guadalajara in March 1937. However, then in 1937 French Fascists acting on Foreign Minister Ciano’s (he was Italian) orders murdered both brothers. Also anti-Fascist concentration was established in Paris 1927, these people were mainly Socialists, and some Liberals. However, they stopped this organization because they were losing support to be more radical.

When Fascists came to power they quickly attracted support from the southern ELITE and they were eager to maintain their local dominance, so they adapted new government and top come true they just put Blackshirts. Blackshirts were there to make people obey Mussolini’s laws and orders. These Blackshirts were beating up people who were opposing Fascists and this meant that Blackshirts were getting rid of opposition. There was also opposition such as Mafia, which is a criminal organization. They were using violence to control people and to earn some money. Mafia was established about in 1840s in Sicily. This organization remains a major problem for Italian governments seeking to reform the South. Mussolini had had to take on the Mafia because he could not tolerate competition for the control of violence. Overall the fascist regime largely attacked the outward manifestation of the Mafia.

In my conclusion I come out that Mussolini’s opposition was very weak and some of them really useless, which means that they couldn’t harm Fascism. As two historians say that organizations had little support from society because most people were doing what Mussolini said to do and then just go home and live s always without thinking about anything else. This means that there was Mass Apathy. Historian Clark said ‘…the real reason for anti-Fascist’s failure was that the Fascist regime seemed tolerable and was even popular…’ This tells that anti-Fascist was useless, and couldn’t harm Mussolini’s regime.