1. What opportunities existed for African American men that African American women were not afforded? What opportunities do men have today that women do not? Although African American men were relegated to unskilled and service labor, they were still able get jobs. African American men were able to get work that required manual unskilled labor, such as in agricultural fields. Women (and children) were abandoned, and they became wanderers and scavengers for food.
Black men were able to get work with the railroads, in rolling and lumber mills, in paper mills, candy factories, as cooks waiters, porters, bellhops, and barroom workers in hotels, and baker’s assistants. There also found employment in the rebuilding of Atlanta after the war, as painters, carpenters, and brick-masons. A few were able to own small shops and work as teachers and ministers. Black women had fewer opportunities for employment. Most of the work they could get was domestic, serving as cooks, maids, and child-nurses.
There were also a few jobs similar to their domestic ones in local hotels. Many also worked as laundresses. Some rarer jobs the a few black women could get were as dressmakers and seamstresses. Even rarer, some were able to get jobs as teachers. Black women were also always at risk for sexual abuse from white men. Today, men and women have more equality, but they are certainly not equal in every respect. Aside from “natural inequalities” such as pregnancy and childbirth, some women still feel that it is easier for men to get ahead, especially career-wise.
Men’s salaries are on average higher than women’s, for example. Sexuality is also a problematic area in modern times. Men who are highly sexually active are deemed “manly”, whereas women would be labeled “whores” and “sluts”. 2. Charlotte Brown “manipulated class, gender, and identity in quest for justice”. Would you have fought the battle to form interracial cooperation between black and white women differently? Given the milieu of the time, I agree with Charlotte Hawkins Brown’s methods for her goal of interracial cooperation and racial equality in the United States.
Brown lived with a paradigm of “the end justifies the means. ” She had a good understanding of the psychology of people, and she took good advantage of psychological techniques that were effective in convincing whites to provide her with what she needed. She had courage when all she had were mental weapons, when her race was almost fully at the mercy of mostly unsympathetic whites. Instead of trying to change attitudes towards blacks by force, she gave white persons a “reputation” that they felt they should live up to.
Even her attempts to remain above the southern racial structure are justified. She held up a “fictional mirror of civility” to whites, and the whites, liking what they saw, followed accordingly. The whites were strong and the blacks weak; Brown appealed to the pride of white persons to persuade them, similar to the martial arts tactic of “using the opponent’s own strength against him. ” Brown was… devious in a good way. She appealed to the pride of white people in order to solicit support from them.
Although some may view some of Brown’s actions as unethical, I believe that they are fully justified by her purpose of raising blacks above their current level in society. I believe that her ends did justify her means, and ultimately, I find no fault in her methods. 3. Define “power” from a woman’s perspective today. What is the difference between power and manipulation? For today’s woman, power means the ability to choose what she wants to be, without experiencing artificial restraint from society simply because of being a woman (which would be sexism).
Power is the ability to transform oneself as one sees fit. This is the power to do something about one’s current situation. However, some extreme feminists may view power as superiority over others, even, specifically, over the male (the inverse of what they consider to be the current situation). It would involve having power over others in order to achieve one’s goals. This kind of power can be regarded as the power of manipulation. Hence manipulation can be thought of as power that is applied to subjugate others in order to gain something.