The cusp of Nashat’s work portrays women as going through cultural and religious changes dependent on the geographic location, but nevertheless having a pronounced impact on the culture. She focuses on women in history whereas the textbook focuses on presenting Islamic women as subservient because the Qur’an tells them to be. Furthermore, the textbook indicates that “the ideological and conceptual world of pre-modern Middle Eastern Muslim societies also required and legitimized male dominance.
The prevailing ideologies held that men were physically stronger, more intelligent, and more suited to action, and must rule over women, who were more subject to their emotions. Women were identified with the undisciplined forces of nature; men with the order imposed by culture. ” In general, the textbook fails to provide any biographical or examples individuals like Nashat does in her work. Nashat discussion points are logically structured but also incorporate example icons or role models.
She also well-substantiates her points by referring to Qur’an verses, example women like Khadijh and, Mohammad’s wife who was involved in commerce and Umm Waraqah bint Abd’Alah who led prayers, hadiths translated by women, poetry where women were shown as strong and determined, and historic references. These examples encourage readers to feel that the work is more objective at this point because of these examples. The textbook expects that one simply believe what it has to say. Because of these examples, I feel that Nashat’s work is trustworthy and has merit.
This interpretation of how Muslim women evolved during the pre-modern period appears to be well-documented in some cases and contains great examples. In addition, as Nashat is using hadiths of Mohammad’s activities and treatment of women the reader tends to feel that she is not fearful of providing examples upon request. She is not trying to coax you to believe her, she is simply providing you with all the information in an organized manner so that you feel that she is being trust-worthy.
The conclusion in the textbook generally states that “the shaping of the modern Islamic world there have been two contradictory trends: the trend toward global integration, which favors universalistic Islam, and ie trend toward the consolidation of national stales, which favors the parochial-Sation or localization of Islam. Muslims to abandon local practices and to conform to the common texts of Islam – the Quran, selected hadith, and the principle of Shari’a. ” (Lapidus 851 ff) Nashat points out that whereas local practices where initially retained, there have been many instances where people are using the common texts of Islam.
She too uses these examples in her work as a means of conveying information about the transformation that women have gone though. She attempts to show readers that cultural practices had lead to women being secluded in various countries, and that Islam was not built upon those principles. Cultures have taken aspects of religion and transformed them into a means of isolating women if it thought justified. Ms. Nashat seeks to convey that the demands of social and economic conditions had also lead to cultures transforming their existing cultures along with the Muslim values.
Nashat’s claims are a means towards rectifying any misconceptions found in various western as well as non-western societies. Because her work is so well organized, readers tend to ignore that within the body of her work lies some non-objectives texts. Nevertheless, because Nashat, unlike the text, tends to derive some of her analysis from the Qur’an you find that she does have objective elements in there which give her work more merit. In general, the scope of her work contains an organized timeline in which Nashat is able to coherently iterate a variety of examples in which women are both role models as well as authority figures.
Having read her work, I feel inspired to read similar pieces and comprehend how misconceptions occur in the first place. In general, I feel that her points are well presented and structured in a highly organized manner. It was an honor to read her work.
Works Cited: Lapidus, Ira M. A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. 2002 Nashat, Guity and Judith E. Tucker, Women in the Middle East and North Afriaca: Restoring Women to History. Women in the Middle East: 8000 B. C. E. 7C. E. 1800. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.