Regimes are specialized arrangement that pertain to well defined activities, resources, geographical areas and often involve members of international society. They can also be seen as norms, decision making procedures, rules that are used by various states, which are required of them so as a smooth relations and cooperation with one another as cooperation is required in matters to do with international politics.
This understanding is what is required for good international relations. Regimes change perceptions of oneself and interest and may result from an idea of gaining prominence. Most regimes have united people from all over the globe who have different backgrounds, different principles and norms, making it crucial that there should be an arrangement, which will be common in uniting members of the international society. Regimes can provide a source of self-understanding of the world.
This can be done by constructing identities by various members who agree on what will be the social acceptable norms and interests in their regime. If the regime comprises of members from various places who have diverse background, they will need to each understand the other member part of the world to avoid any conflicts in terms of difference in procedures, decision-making, interest, resource use, norms and rules.
Regimes, which have specialized arrangement can for example, be CITE, which stands for Convention on International Trade in Endangered species of wild flora and fauna. This is a regime, which is concerned with the environment. Its rules and legislation governs the trade of the endangered species. Regimes serve crucial functional needs in international relations. Powerful regimes are independent actors in international politics, hence you will find regimes based in developed countries dictate mostly what is happening in the international politics.
For example, regimes like international monetary fund and World Bank can suggested or coerce a developing country government to enforce certain measures as directed before it is given funds. The hegemonic stability theory states hegemon being the dominant factor in international politics and economics often stand to gain the most from the creation of global standards, for example, World Bank and International Monetary Fund are regimes, which are formed due to finance issues. Regimes are developed in different ways.
The theories of developing states are as follows. Realist theory emphasize state power, which the nature of anarchy in the international system causes state to be concerned with gains hence if a state see it will lose in an agreement or will be worse of than the other states in the agreement, it will refuse to get into an agreement. Due to hegemon, the regime can be able to support itself even if others in the agreement are not keenly concerned of its welfare. This leads to the creation and persistence of a regime.
Krasner (1991), realist theory states that distribution issue and power come first. Power is important during the agreement process while the regime provide stability hence the states involved meditate between interest and outcome. Regime facilitates cooperation by mitigating cheating and allowing for the resolution of distributional issues. The states involved in the agreement have to be sensitive to the gains because others may get more out of an agreement than the state concerned. Hasendever (2000), Neoliberal theory focuses on constellations of interest.
Here states in the agreement are concerned with absolute gains hence they have to look at the best deal possible. International regimes often form in response to a need to coordinate behaviour among countries around an issue, for example, the ITU regime, which deals with information and communication hence telecommunication between various countries will enable ease of communication. As ITU serves as a forum and governing body to standardize telecommunication across countries effectively.
Human rights are also adhered to international regime, for example, Amnesty International. Human rights regimes are not enforced by interstate actions. These regimes empower individual citizen to bring suit to challenge the domestic activities of their own government. Martin (1998), Cognitivist theory is concerned with knowledge and ideas. Regimes based on military basis and issues, for example, African Union regime, which looks into rights concerned with security matters.
Hasendever, Andreas, Peter Mayer & Volker Rittberger. Theories of International Regimes. Cambridge University Press. 2000. Martin, Lisa. L. and Beth A. Simmons. “Theories & Empirical Studies of International Institutions. ” International Organization 52. 4, 1998. Martin, Lisa. L. “Interests, Power & Multilateralism” International Organization, 1992. Krasner, S. D. , 1991, Global Communicators & National Power-life on the Paretofrontier World Politics 43.