National and Organizational Culture

Human Resources Development, Employment, and Globalization in hotel, catering and tourism sector. International Labor Organization. [Online] Available from The concept of globalization is widely applicable in industries of hotel, catering and tourism that are in a way interrelated. The report by ILO presents a comprehensive review of hotel and tourism industry which is boosted by globalization as cross-border travelling increased overtime.

According to ILO, the most positively affected sector in this case is the employment sector where employment level and skills of employees have tremendously increased due to global travelling. The inter country interactions with tourists and guests have led local firms to develop training and education programs for their employees which gives development opportunities for both men and women, thereby, affecting the culture as well. The study will be an important input in studying the impact of globalization of human resource development and culture of developing nations.

Yusoff, M. S. (2003). Globalization and Human Resource Development in the Malaysian Public Sector. UN. [Online] Available from http://unpan1. un. org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/EROPA/UNPAN014373. pdf [Accessed August 14, 2010] Yusoff in his report presents the globalization approach adopted by Malaysian public sector to avoid consequences of income inequality and win-lose situation between developed and developing countries as conceived by various critics.

Yusoff studies various initiatives that Malaysian government has taken in development of its human work force such as remuneration policies that support growth and productivity and can be rewarded accordingly, career development strategies to increase motivation for learning and performance in employees and global training and development programs for locals to adjust to globalization demands. The study is a valuable effort that provides factors and strategies that can combat negative consequences of globalization. Kefela, G. T. (2010). Understanding Organizational Culture and Leadership- Enhance Efficiency and Productivity.

PM World Today. [Online] Available from http://www. pmforum. org/library/papers/2010/PDFs/jan/FP-KEFELE-Managingorganizationalcultures. pdf [Accessed August 13, 2010] This paper by Kefela revolves around importance of organizational culture in creating effective leadership and shaping the approach of employees towards their goals. A strong organization of efficiency and productivity is created by cultures that promote as well as support structures and policies which lead management into taking actions that can enhance productivity of employees through suitable job designs, hierarchy of command and delegation of authority.

The paper by Kefela is an important input in understanding culture separately as well as in organizational context. Also the importance of organizational culture as emphasized in paper is relevant to study of global HRM where clashes between national and organizational cultures are observed. Michailova, S and Hutchings, K. (2004). Knowledge Sharing and National culture: A comparison between China and Russia. Journal of Management Studies [Online] Available from http://openarchive. cbs.

dk/bitstream/handle/10398/7306/knowledge%20sharing%20and%20national%20culture. pdf? sequence=1 [Accessed August 14, 2010] The research report by Michailova and Hutchings is an analytical approach towards understanding the cultural approaches in transitional economies of China and Russia and how national culture affects the processes of organizations such as knowledge sharing. The cultural aspects of vertical individualism and collectivism in these two countries definitely affect the way organizations and especially international operate.

The authors have investigated the differences in national cultures of Russia and China and then empirically analyzed how the difference in cultures affect the perceptions of management in firms regarding knowledge sharing which is an essential element in business today. Yeganeh, M. E. (2006). The impact of National and organizational culture on information technology (IT). [Online] Available from http://www. nlai. ir/Portals/2/files/faslname/69/en_content. pdf [Accessed August 15, 2010] Yeganeh in this paper discusses the increasing importance of national and organizational culture on Information technology and over all global operations.

According to Yeganeh, as the world moves towards a global end, use of information technology is also increasing leading to dependency of foreign firms on information technology. However, the national culture prevailing in host country often causes hindrance to achievement of such transfer of knowledge. The paper intends to provide a detailed overview of national culture as well as organizational culture which is believed to overcome any hindrances created by national culture if strong enough and therefore, provides a comprehensive account of various issues like culture and globalization.