Cellulosic Ethanol

The DDCE Company is a one hundred and forty million dollars joint venture business between Genencor, which is a subsidiary business of Danisco, and the DuPont. The company, in collaboration with the research foundation of the University of Tennessee has established a cellulosic ethanol plant in Tennessee’s Vanore. Renewable plant materials are the core materials while the second generation fuel generation is utilized. This case study analysis discusses the feedstock availability and its related average yields, the technology used, the biofuel yields, and the biofuel characteristics in comparison to those of the petrol fuel (Sissell 2008, pp. 4-97).

Feedstock Availability Its Average Yields The biomass feedstock of the DDCE generates low carbon fuels. This helps to cater for the concerns arising from the long term security economic issues. The company’s feedstock uses the plant cellulosic biomass since the plant matters used contains lignin which comprise of grains, fruits, and vegetables, among others. Its feedstock has fermentable sugars some of which are easily accessible to biochemical conversion.

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Based on Sissell’s argument, the availability and logistic yields per acre and the density and the land usage tend to influence the choice of the DDCE feedstock(Sissell 2008, pp. 67-70). Currently, the company has settled on the usage of gallons per acre yields and this is the reason why DDCE demonstrated its first bio-refineries using switch-grass and corncob. The company also has considered the usage of other feedstock such as sugarcane bagasse, fiber sorghum, wheat straw, and miscanthus (Nhuan, Caye, and Terry 2008, pp. 21-54).

The feedstock has the lignin that is a complex network of the aromatic compound high energy comprises of 15% to 25%, the hemicelluloses of 23% to 32% of about 6 carbon sugars that are linked together in long chains that are branched arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose residues, and mannose, and 38% to 50% cellulose formed in semi crystalline structure. In the DECC Company, advanced biofuel is based on the biomass residues that normally increase the yields of the biofuel energy. The production costs are decreased while decoupling from the production of foods is realized.

During the production process in the company, the production input used is agricultural wastes and crop residues while the ultimate output is fertilizer and fuel. In some instances, the BioFuel A/S technology which is mainly dedicated to the production of biofuel based on various biomass wastes is employed. Emphasis in the company’s production technology is laid on the second generation biofuel. The biofuel production process entails the wastes being converted to biofuel, pure water, and refined fertilizers.

The technology used enable avoidance of adverse negative environmental impacts of the wastes (Hammerschlag 2006, pp. 389-397). The lignocelluloses biomass contains lignin which comprises of aromatic compounds with high energy contents, hemicelluloses. The joint venture combines DuPont’s expertise in bio-refinery design and engineering, pretreatment chemistry, and mixed-sugar fermentation with Genencor’s expertise in biomass enzymes and low-cost biocatalyst production. A technology package that contains all the designs, licenses, and engineering techniques needed in a bio-refinery ethanol production is used.

Additionally, licenses that make the needed biocatalysts for production are encompassed in the DDCE technology. The integrated solution thus allows for the system sustainability with an optimized system unit within the operating expense parameters and a more cost effective and reliable capital scale. According to Nhuan, Caye and Terry (2008, pp. 21-54), a template solution for an upstream biomass technological supply is utilized in order to enhance an improved transfer upgrades and system performance. Under the technology to be used at the DDCE Fermentation process, fermentation has been accorded a lot of attention.

A mixed sugar based ethanologen related associated to the zymomonas mobilis bacterium has also been integrated into the production technology. Hammerschlag (2006, pp. 389-397) explains that indeed this partly explains why DuPont has opted to optimize a strain that was initially acquired the nations laboratory of renewable energy and the advanced applied metabolic engineering thus boosting the xylose pathway organism’s ability usage of the C5 sugars in the hydrolysate process. An improved metabolic engineering of the zymomomas would, as illustrated in the four xylose pathway genes below, be used.