It was the French armed forces which blocked the harbors of Dubrovnik and compelled the government to concede. French’s troops then entered the city. During this occupation, the people of the city painted every flag and coat of arms above the city walls black, as a symbol of misery and sorrow. Marshal Marmont eradicated the republic and assimilates its region into the Illyrian provinces in 1808 (“Dubrovnik”2). In 1815 Dubrovnik was freed from the control of the French forces, through the decree of the Congress of Vienna, and places in the hands of the Austrian Empire.
During that year the previous Ragusan government was able to meet for the last time. Substantial efforts made to reestablish the Republic failed miserably. Right after the downfall of the republic, the majority of the aristocracy relocated overseas. The Gozze family was the last remaining of the previous ruling class of families. The Croatian Assembly, Sabor, printed and circulated the People’s Requests. In this document, they asked for amongst other things, the elimination of serfdom and the amalgamation of Croatia and Dalmatia.
The municipality of Dubrovnik was the major talked of every Dalmatian commune in its support for amalgamation along with Croatia. A message was mailed from Dubrovnik to Zagreb with vows and promises to work for this plan. Through the year 1849, Dubrovnik persisted in its bid to head the Dalmatia cities in an effort for amalgamation. A large-scale movement was inaugurated in the Dubrovnik paper called L’Awenire, which means “The Future. ” The plan of action was based on a program of the Slavic brotherhood and the federal system for the Habsburg areas.
These included the lands of Dalmatia into Croatia. The first copy of the Dubrovnik almanac was the “Flower of the National Literature,” Dubrovnik, Cvijet Narodnog Knjizevstva, in which Petar Preradovic printed and circulated his renowned poem “To Dubrovnik (“Dubrovnik”1). ” The literary and journalistic texts in this paper influenced awareness of the national consciousness. This was mirrored in hard work to present the language of Croatian in school, business establishments, and government offices as well as the publication of Croatian books.
In response, Emperor Franz Joseph ordered the institution of a document called the “Imposed Constitution” which banned the amalgamation of Dalmatia and Croatia. In 1861 the first Dalmatia Assembly held a meeting which has representatives from Ragusa. Kotor’s representatives arrived in Dubrovnik to support the previously failed efforts for amalgamation with Croatia. Ragusa’s citizenries provided them a merry and cheerful welcome. They hung Croatian flags from the walls and banners displaying the slogan: “Ragusa with Kotor”. When the Kotorans assembled a commission to go to Vienna, Dubrovnik elected Niko Pucic to stand in for them.
Niko Pucic traveled to Vienna to request not only the amalgamation of Dalmatia and Croatia, but also the amalgamation of every Croatian’s areas and regions under a single communal Assembly. They remained subject to the Austrian Empire until 1867 with little significant social or economic change (“Dubrovnik”2). Niko Pucic made several contributions before he passed away in the year 1883. As a staunch supporter of the Croatian Assembly, he was one of the most vocal advocates of the amalgamation of Dalmatia, specifically Ragusa, with Croatia.
Additionally, he was also the founder of the review Slovinac and the editor of the review Ragusa. The year Niko Pucic passed, the region saw the death of another great political leader and writer as well, Ivan August Kaznacic. Ivan August Kaznacic was an advocate and a publicist of the Illyrian cause. He revised the review Zora Dalmatinska, translated as Dalmatian Dawn, and established the Dubrovnik review L’Awenire (“Dubrovnik”2). The city’s minister, Baron Francesco Ghetaldi-Gondola, had a monument constructed in memory of Ivan Gundulic in Piazza Gundulic.
It was the efforts of these men, and others like them, which eventually led towards toward the emancipation of Dubrovnik from the Austria-Hungary Empire in 1918. Throughout the centuries, the citizens refused to recognize Dubrovnik’s ‘official’ name Ragusa. With the downfall of the Austria-Hungary Empire and the unification of the territory into the Kingdom of Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes, which later became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, their name was officially restored. Time marched on and still the changes did not stop coming. At the very start of World War II, Dubrovnik was the initial founding location of the Independent State of Croatia.
From April 1941 up to September 1943, Dubrovnik was inhabited by the Italian forces, which were followed by the Germans. In October of 1944, the Partisans removed the land from the hands of the Germans and Dubrovnik was made part of the second Yugoslavia in 1945 (“Dubrovnik”1). The Yugoslav People’s Army remained though the 1970s. During these later years the occupying forces came to recognize and respect the historical significance of the city’s architecture. In an effort to avoid it from turning to be a casualty of war, the walled interior of the 7th century “Old Town” was demilitarized.
New wars began in the last two decades, and much of the city, old and newer, was damaged by artillery and mortar attacks. The architecture and art were not the only artistic casualties of the war. The celebrated poet Milan Milisic died in the bombing campaign. At the end of the war, a rebuilding project headed by the UNESCO and Croatian authorities began. They reconstructed the city in salute to its original styles in order to both preserve and honor its rich history and beauty. The most damaged structures were still being reconstructed as of in 2005. (“Battle”)