Date: Workers have become very dependent on the corporations they work for. In our society today, it is impossible for many to obtain health insurance at affordable rates without working for a corporation for example. Most states have laws based on a doctrine called “employment at will”. Basically, this doctrine, which comes from the 19th century anti-labor laws, gives companies the right to terminate any employee at any time for any reason or for no reason at all. (Pagon et al, 332)
There are some important exceptions in some states concerning discrimination based on race, handicap or sex, speaking about public issues, filling for worker’s compensation and whistle blowing. Also if you belong to a union, are a public employee or have signed an employment contract, this doctrine does not apply to you. There are about 60 million American workers who work for private business whose constitutional rights are taken away by this doctrine. (Pagon et al, 334) Non-universal treatment includes injustice experiences where workers are treated differently by management or co-workers.
For example, these situations involved problems with scheduling, job duties, policy enforcement, work behaviors, inconsistent criteria for employment termination, promotion, compensation, differential treatment of employs with children and work resources. Wrongful accusation and punishment is characterized by experiences in which workers are blamed for another’s mistake or is unjustifiably accused of a mistake. This category also includes situations where subjects follow company policy but are reprimanded for it.
These violations relate to Procedural Justice, where supervisors and managers violate procedures or policies. Unrecognized credit relates to experiences where recognition is not given through promotion, compensation, performance appraisals or recognition for effort. (http://division. aomonline. org/rm/2002forum/justice. pdf. ) According to (Aryee et al, 270)Management negligence encompasses unfair experiences where managers treat subordinates with disrespect, take advantage of their power or undermine other’s authority.
This category includes experiences where the manager does not fulfill his or her duties, such as training subordinates, or does not follow proper procedures. A lack of information about unpopular decisions is also characteristic in this case. “Empty promises related to experiences where workers are told one thing but later told something that contradict the earlier statement, agreement or policy. These violations involve problems such as amount and timeliness of compensation, policies for excused absences and implied agreements.
This category represents a violation of procedural and informational justice. ” (Pagon et al, 337) According to (Aryee et al 271), Unsatisfactory pay or raises include situations where participants do not feel that they are properly compensated for their efforts. These complaints surface when workers compare their input to output ratios to other workers’ input to output ratios. This is a clear link to equity theory in that workers compare these ratios and perceiving an imbalance.
There are experiences where workers receive promotions but not the accompanying raise. This finding relates to the performance outcome link in expectancy theory. Workers feel it is unfair that they receive a promotional for excellent performance, which does not lead to increased outcomes or rewards. “Harassment means unwanted conduct affecting the dignity of men and women in the workplace. It may be related to age, sex, race, disability, religion, nationality or any personal characteristic of the individual and may be persistent or an isolated incident.
Bullying includes offensive, intimidating, malicious of insulting behavior, an abuse or misuse of power through means intended to undermine, humiliate, denigrate or injure the recipient. Bullying or harassment may be by an individual against an individual (perhaps someone in a position of authority such as a manager or supervisor) or involves groups or people. It may be obvious or it may be insidious. Whatever form it takes, it is unwarranted and unwelcome to the individual. ” (Daniel B. et al, 24)