Working mothers have become more and more visible in the past few decades. It is a reality that in most families today, both wife and husband work because of economic reasons. Although a growing number of men assist with child-rearing and household chores, working mothers often have the primary responsibility for these activities in addition to their paid employment. Almost half of the nation’s workforce is female, and more than 90% of all women will work outside the home at some time (U. S. Census Bureau, 2003).
Undoubtedly, many women work because of financial need, but there is a great deal of evidence that given the choice, most women prefer to have employment (Fels 2004, p. 205). Despite the double hardships that women face, research studies show the growing role that women hold in about 50% of management and professional positions in the U. S. in 2004. Working mothers are a growing share of senior-level managers at top firms. These managers and professionals were most likely White and Asian-American women (Bailey, 2005). Various opportunities have already become available to women.
If not in workforce, women find themselves in succeeding in business. Thus, given more time and freedom to do whatever they want, working mothers could still rise beyond every challenge that they face. The entry of mothers into the workforce has set a trend that trail-blazed in the areas of labor and business. Women who could now take home a paycheck had bestowed a sense of freedom and self-assurance to them. Moreover, it could be noted that women did not need to remain married just to ensure financial security for her and her children.
In 2000 census, it showed that single mothers are the fastest-growing demographic in the United States. They have been given options that enable them to be a mother and an employee, at the same time. If they found themselves no longer happy working in a corporate world, a favorable option would be to start their own business. Today, women are starting businesses at four times the rate of men. Thus, the term “momprenuer” is now widely recognized In this study, the issue of working mothers will be tackled in-depth.
First, the history of how companies began to accommodate working mothers will be surveyed. Second, the crucial dilemma mothers have to face whether to work or be a homemaker will be discussed. Third, the benefits versus limitations that companies have in hiring working mothers in their labor force will also be explored. How the Working Mothers Changed American Society Women seeking jobs in the early 1900s had already accepted employment in a society marked by elaborate and long-standing hiring preferences based on gender, on marital status, and on ethnicity or race.
This employer discrimination, generally predicated on widely shared community prejudices, protected some jobs for women but kept women out of others. Within female labor markets, class, race, and ethnicity intertwined with the strand of gender to define women’s job options. These factors, as much as economic considerations, determined which jobs women could have and thus influenced their decisions about whether, when, and where to seek work (Blackwelder 1997, p. 12). Conditions during those times were not exactly friendly towards women.
The occupational structure of the female labor force resembled a stratified pyramid, with professionals (who made up approximately 12 percent of the non-farm female work force) at the apex, followed by clericals (5 percent), salesworkers (5 percent), and factory operatives or manual laborers (34 percent), with domestic and other service workers (44 percent), such as hotel maids, laundry workers, and the like, at the base. As these percentages show, the overwhelming majority (78 percent) of wage-earning women in 1900 toiled in manufacturing or service jobs.