Indirect Intrusions

According to David Newsome (p. 26-27) human intrusions in Yellowstone must be minimized due to the following reasons: 1. Animals are being killed by motorists and this includes elk, mule deer and wolves. 2. Health issues for wildlife caused by humans included the risk of disease transference. 3. Disturbance to animal hunting, feeding or undertaking other routines making other sensitive species to forgo the use of critical habitat for nesting or foraging resulting in increased mortality or decline in health, fecundity and population levels.

Other problems include poor waste management, food refuse and feeding of animals which can greatly affect the ecosystem of the park. 5. Indirect effects of tourism are seen through fires, vehicles damaging the soil, noise and construction of facilities which not only spoils the landscape but adds to the pollution. Indirect Intrusions The kind of human intrusion described above is direct wherein man by his presence alters the ecosystem. But there is another kind of human intrusion that is less direct but can produce the degree of damage can be more serious.

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An example of which is the creation of policies and rules that may appear to be helpful but in reality is actually detrimental to the species found in Yellowstone. There are times when man reaches great heights of folly. In those times he thinks he is God and tries to play God. An example of man’s foolishness is when he decides who lives or dies. The result is predictable, a series of catastrophic decisions when human management gives orders to exterminate a certain species. And yet after a time the human managers realize they were wrong. Case in point is the wanton destruction of coyotes in Yellowstone National Park.

Just like its cousin the wolf, coyotes were hunted down because man in all his wisdom thought wrong and in his fear and ignorance upset the delicate ecological balance of the park in particular and the whole American landscape in general. Consequence The end result of reducing the number of predator and carnivores in a given ecological system will cause an imbalance that allows organisms in the lower levels of the food chain to multiply unchecked their population becoming a nuisance to other s competing for the same resources and the same create problems for humans living within the vicinity of national parks.

In the year 1872 when the Yellowstone National Park was established and even up until the early 1900s there was growing consensus that elk and bison were considered as desirable species and a major asset in the said park while at the same time predators such as bears, wolves and coyotes were considered as undesirable species (Prato & Farge, 2005). A modern day scientist could have easily predicted the result of such a posture and such an unforgiving stance to the said predators.

Modern scientists would have been able to advice them to ease up because this will mess up the ecosystem. Unfortunately such extensive knowledge concerning the interactions of species was not yet available to the 19th century conservationists. The result as mentioned was predictable using present day standards, Prato and Farge remarked on this and they wrote the following, “Wildlife management during this period consisted of supplemental feeding of desirable species and eradication of predators.