School-Age Adopted Child

Children from orphanages have been negatively affected in a dose-response manner by the pre-adoption period, meaning they are at risk for attachment disorders. In the journal of van IJzendoorn and Juffer, the comparisons between the children left behind in the orphanages and the adopted ones proved that international adoption is an effective social intervention in the developmental realms of substantial growth, attachment security, cognitive maturity and educational achievement, sense of worth, and behavior tribulations.

Adopted children show more attachment security and lesser attachment disorganization compared with children in residential care, and their IQ scores are also higher than those of their peers left behind (van IJzendoorn and Juffer, 2005). On the other hand, adopted children still lag behind their current, environmental peers, and their catch-up remains incomplete in some domains (van IJzendoorn and Juffer, 2005). Late adoptions of age 12 months and up lead to more attachment insecurity because around the first year of an individual, the most essential developmental issue is basic trust in a protective adult.

Late adoptees did not have the chance to experience these basic trust and secure relationship, in effect; it may carry over through the years and affect their whole personality and ability to form new attachment relationships with the adoptive parents (van IJzendoorn and Juffer, 2005). It is also concluded that adoption is a notable involvement that result to astounding catch-up ability of a child. History and ethology advocates that all species are adapted to adopt.

Adoption contributes in developing and improving the personality of the child to help them recover from extremely adverse circumstances in their pasts. I. Conclusion Early childhood attachments affect the child’s personality and future attachment with other people that they may encounter, as well as their social and communication skills. Attachment problems results from traumatic experiences from early childhood occurrences that may affect the child’s view and understanding about the world and the people around him.

Children who experienced insecure and disorganized attachment from their caregivers tend to have a lower self-esteem, social instability and attachment disorders. They find it hard to trust other people and see the world as a danger place to live in with cold people existing in it. In contrast, secured children are more eager and excited to learn about life, easy to trust other people, and see their caregiver as very loving and affectionate people.

Age of an adoptee is also a factor in the child’s ability to form attachment with his adoptive parents. Infants are easier to adjust and cope with their new surrounding with their new family. Moreover, lesser conflicts about social and emotional issues are being encountered by both the parents and the children. While older children who already have more experiences in life and remembers more things such as traumatic events or neglectful attachment figures need a longer time to adjust to their new environment.

In addition, those who stayed longer in an orphanage or institution who experienced low affection and attention from the organizers also have poor security attachment, lower catch-ups, and cognitive and emotional stability. Due to probability of behavioral problems of older adoptees, more adoptive parents prefer infants for adoption than those who have stayed longer in institutions. However, whether, infants or older children will be chosen by the family, proper managing of attachment and other psychological issues that may arouse in adoption system is substantial.

For every adoptee, the feeling of grief and loss will always be with them, that is why social attachment and security should be shown to them to illuminate the feeling of unwantedness that they may feel in the future. Adjusting would be very challenging especially for older children, a lot of effort and attention should be given to them fo r the successful building of attachment between the parent and child. For a successful building of attachment between the adoptive parents and children, it is very important to consider these factors that affect the children’s personality and social ability.

Know more about the child’s history so that one can understand and adjust to him completely. Make them feel secure because every individual needs it. Adoption, particularly international programs, help boosts the child’s social, emotional, and cognitive development. When you adopt a child, you give him a chance to live a normal life, be loved, and improve his whole personality and ability. Everyone deserves a normal and wonderful family life, even if with your biological or adoptive family.


Brodzinsky, D. (1998). Attachment Issues in the School-Age Adopted Child. Retrieved January 16, 2008 from < http://www. pactadopt. org/press/articles/attach-school. html> Chris Fraley, R. (2004). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved January 10, 2008 from <http://www. psych. uiuc. edu/~rcfraley/attachment. htm> DoCs (2006). Attachment: Key Issues. Research to Practice Notes [Electronic version]. Retrieved from <http://www. community. nsw. gov. au/docswr/_assets/main/documents/researchnotes_attachment_keyissues. pdf>