What is it (abstract) PRM 447 defines that univariate analysis is statistical “analysis of single variables as distinct from relationships among variables” or by the use of a single dependent variable; while bivariate analysis is the analysis that describes a relationship among pairs or different variables. Univariate analysis is done on only one variable, and all the attributes can be listed for a particular case. Machine codebook is to do code analysis by frequencies on all the variables. Analysis that is done on one variable at a time is univariate.
As compared to this a bivariate analysis is done on two variables or variables in pairs. In this case frequencies are assigned to both paired variables. Why is it important for international relation research? (provide EXAMPLE for each one- people, event.. etc) It is important in international research which is based on one variables or paired variables. For e. g. in research where single variable is involved, study like political events in one country affecting politics of another country.
The study guideline indicates that the “greater the degree of conflict among political units, the greater the degree of solidarity in each” country. Factors of similarities may also affect the importance of international relation research such as territory, population, GNP, political parties, power, leadership, education, etc. Hence, when we take only one variables, like education, population, health then it is univariate study, but when a pair of variables are studied like health and education, politics and law then it is bivariate study. ETHNOMETHODOLOGY What is it (abstract)
From ethnomethodology, ethnotheories represent the foundation of human’s understanding of how deviant labels are construction in every day interaction, which has eventually accepted as something of practical. Or it is a study that associates with something of common sense. Similarly, it describes that ethnotheories is “a theoretical orientation emphasizing people’s everyday procedures for solving practical problems in situations through (1) constructing ethnotheories; (2) experiencing phenomena; and (3) constructing common-sense accounts and prophesies. ” (Definitions)
For example, it describes how we learn to understand what people say and their actions, how we develop a structure and pattern in our social interactions with other people. Even in certain situation, it makes us to categorize certain people and how they differ in certain situations, we make assumptions continuously of what people say and their behavior, although it seem acceptable and practical, which deviates from the social norms and standards. Our assumptions modify our behavior and attitude. How we behave with others and how in different situations we perform.
Our social interactions and dealings are dependent on our thought and feelings. It also depends on our learned behavior. Why is it important for international relation research? (provide EXAMPLE for each one- people, event.. etc) Ethnomethodology is of great importance in international research, because our behavior and attitude affect our intergovernmental relations. Globalization has made it difficult for countries to differentiate between domestic and international issues. In fact, an incident in Venezuela may cause a strike in another country.
This makes what Pobedash of the Urals State University states, “political and social studies, area studies and economics can only be properly understood, studied and taught in the global context” (ANIR). The relationship between countries is rested on the policy issues. II. What does qualitative analysis mean? What are strengths and weaknesses of qualitative analysis? What sort of qualitative research technique works best for IR? Qualitative analysis is, by definition, a research methodology used to understand the cause and effect of a problem.
It is done in a serious manner. It gives the nature, the purpose of the study, it links theory and analysis, and helps the researchers to assess the possible outcomes. Qualitative analysis involves an elaboration and causal analysis derived from the cognitive bias of human evolution. It utilizes elaboration or rationalization that is consistent with probing beneath the surface of data collected. In addition, qualitative analysis involves the elaboration of a logical relationship between two variables.
Qualitative analysis is the most used methodology analysis in social science and it enables the researchers to see the cause and effect relations in social and cultural phenomena. As part of evaluation research, it is often used to determine the impact of some social intervention in many social problems for example civil war. In this analysis, the researcher would be able to identify the problem, specify the problems and the expected result, the causes and effects, assess the degree of intervention such as resettlement, and can predict the expected result and more consistent when it is extrapolated in a histogram.
Qualitative analysis can be used rigorously and it is very valuable even though it is difficult. In fact, qualitative analysis involves an examination of data rather than simply an observation of a series of data collected, its analysis is built from a layer or developed on a series of theories and compared to the application. It explains how an effect is the result of certain stimuli, it gives a better explanation of the trend of any change in certain policy, and the description of cause and effect is more accurate than the quantitative analysis.
Qualitative analysis requires extensive study from different theories and is essential for a depth explanation and understanding. If one intends to contribute a better understanding of international relation, then qualitative analysis is the best method to be used. This analysis also, if rigorously used, can produce a more precise analysis than the quantitative one because of the extensive knowledge used and the time frame involved in the study. Different from quantitative analysis which is often based solely on one dependent variable, qualitative analysis involves different variables that are interdependence.
Qualitative analysis is also derived from different methodologies such as observation, ethnology, action study, interview or survey, ethnomethodology, experimentation, case study, unobtrusive measures, quantitative analysis, histography, photography, sociometry, secondary data analysis, or content analysis. This extensive study is distinct and has better explanation of the issue under investigation. Due to its extensiveness and complexity, difficulty, and timeframe, qualitative analysis is under-utilized in international relations. Research itself must follow highest standards of integrity.
A research needs to solve a problem in an effective and reliable way to produce “valid” results. The overall research work depends on its experimental design, analysis of relative data generated from the research, interpretation of analyzed data, conclusions ; discussion, using primary and secondary sources for writing literature, and acknowledging all the contributions from direct and indirect sources correctly is the real essence of a good research. A good research piece comprises first intensively researching all possible and reliable sources to conduct research and then using most recent and reliable literature to interpret the results.
American Psychological Association (2001). Publication Manual. Fifth Edition. Washington, DC Boston University. What is a Research Paper? Retrieved December 10, 2007 from http://www. bu. edu/ir/graduate/current/papers/research. html Definitions. Retrieved December 10, 2007 from www. prm. nau. edu/prm447/definitions. htm Pobedash, Dmitry. Contemporary International Relations: Theory and Practice, The Urals State University. Academic Network in International Relations (ANIR). Retrieved December 10, 2007 from http://www. civiceducationproject. org/legacy/projects/anir/other/research. html